Vol.10, No.1 2014

Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,

Vol.10, No. 1 (2014)

No. Author Name  Title Abstract Full Text

Florian Ion T. Petrescu

Relly Victoria V. Petrescu

Cam Dynamic Synthesis

The paper presents an original method to make the geometric synthesis of the rotary cam and translated tappet with roll. Classical method uses to the geometric synthesis and the reduced tappet velocity, and in this mode the geometric classic method become a geometric and kinematic synthesis method. The new geometric synthesis method uses just the geometric parameters (without velocities), but one utilizes and a condition to realize at the tapped the velocities predicted by the tapped movement laws imposed by the cam profile. Then, it makes the dynamic analyze for the imposed cam profile, and one modify the cam profile geometric parameters to determine a good dynamic response (functionality). In this mode it realizes the dynamic synthesis of the cam, and we obtain a normal functionality.

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Abdul Satar J. Al-Saraf

Suhad A. R. Al-Jumaily

Experimental Investigation on the Emission Characteristics of a Dual – Fuel Micro Gas Turbine by Injecting Ethanol into Compressor Inlet Air

Pollutants generation is strongly dependant on the firing temperature and reaction rates of the gaseous reactants in the gas turbine combustion chamber. An experimental study is conducted on a two-shaft T200D micro-gas turbine engine in order to evaluate the impact of injecting ethanol directly into the compressor inlet air on the exhaust emissions. The study is carried out in constant speed and constant load engine tests. Generally, the results showed that when ethanol was added in a concentration of 20% by volume of fuel flow; NOx emission was reduced by the half, while CO and UHC emissions were almost doubled with respect to their levels when burning conventional LPG fuel alone.

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Nabil J. Yasin

Dhia Al-Deen H. Alwan

Ayad S. Abdulla

Experimental Study of Mixed Convection in an Enclosure with a Cold Movable Top Wall and Hot Bottom Wall

Mixed convection heat transfer to air inside an enclosure is investigated experimentally. The bottom wall of the enclosure is maintained at higher temperature than that of the top wall which keeps in oscillation motion, whereas the left and right walls are well insulated. The differential temperature of the bottom and top walls changed several times in order to accurately characterize the temperature distribution over a considerable range of Richardson number. Adjustable aspect ratio box was built as a test rig to determine the effects of Richardson number and aspect ratio on the flow behavior of the air inside the enclosure. The flow fields and the average Nusselt number profiles were presented in this work. The results show that, at a constant value of the Richardson number, average Nusselt number (Nuav.) increases with aspect ratio. Furthermore, as Richardson number decreases, the time period decreases with constant values of aspect ratio.

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Ramzy H. Saihod

Zaidoon M. Shakoor

Abbas A. Jawad

Prediction of Reaction Kinetic of Al- Doura Heavy Naphtha Reforming Process Using Genetic Algorithm

In this study, genetic algorithm was used to predict the reaction kinetics of Iraqi heavy naphtha catalytic reforming process located in Al-Doura refinery in Baghdad.  One-dimensional steady state model was derived to describe commercial catalytic reforming unit consisting of four catalytic reforming reactors in series process.

The experimental information (Reformate composition and output temperature) for each four reactors collected at different operating conditions was used to predict the parameters of the proposed kinetic model. The kinetic model involving 24 components, 1 to 11 carbon atoms for paraffins and 6 to 11 carbon atom for naphthenes and aromatics with 71 reactions. The pre-exponential Arrhenius constants and activation energies were determined after fine tuning of the model results with experimental data. The input to the optimization is the compositions for 21 components and the temperature for the effluent stream for each one of the four reactors within the reforming process while the output of optimization is 142 predicted kinetic parameters for 71 reactions within reforming process.  The differential optimization technique using genetic algorithm to predict the parameters of the kinetic model.

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Ibtihal A. Mhmood

Adnan dawood Mohamed

Rawnaq Ahmed Mohamed

Improve Wear Resistance on Al 332 Alloy Matrix- Micro -Nano AL2O3 Particles Reiforced Composite

The wear behavior of alumina particulate reinforced A332 aluminium alloy composites produced by a stir casting process technique were investigated. A pin-on-disc type apparatus was employed for determining the sliding wear rate in composite samples at different grain size (1 µm, 12µm, 50 nm) and different weight percentage (0.05-0.1-0.5-1) wt% of alumina respectively. Mechanical properties characterization which strongly depends on microstructure properties of reinforcement revealed that the presence of ( nano , micro) alumina particulates lead to simultaneous increase in hardness, ultimate tensile stress (UTS), wear resistances. The results revealed that UTS, Hardness, Wear resistances increases with the increase in the percentage of reinforcement of Al2O3 when compared to the base alloy A332. The wear rates of the composites were considerably less than that of the aluminum alloy at all applied loads with increasing percentage of reinforcement when compared to the base alloy A332.

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6 Ahmed Sabah Al-Araji

Design of Nonlinear PID Neural Controller for the Speed Control of a Permanent Magnet DC Motor Model based on Optimization Algorithm

In this paper, the speed control of the real DC motor is experimentally investigated using nonlinear PID neural network controller. As a simple and fast tuning algorithm, two optimization techniques are used; trial and error method and particle swarm optimization PSO algorithm in order to tune the nonlinear PID neural controller's parameters and to find best speed response of the DC motor. To save time in the real system, a Matlab simulation package is used to carry out these algorithms to tune and find the best values of the nonlinear PID parameters. Then these parameters are used in the designed real time nonlinear PID controller system based on LabVIEW package. Simulation and experimental results are compared with each other and showed the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm in terms of fast and smooth dynamic response for the speed control of the real DC motor. Full Text

Bassim S. Mohammed

Emad S. Ahmed

Shahad D. Sateaa

The Mutual Interaction effects between Array Antenna Parameters and Receiving Signals Bandwidth

The presence of a single complex adaptive weight in each element channel of an adaptive array antenna is sufficient for processing of narrowband signals. The ability of an adaptive array antenna to null interference deteriorates rapidly as the interference bandwidth increases. The performance of narrowband adaptive array antenna with LMCV Beamforming algorithm is examined. The interaction effects between received signal angle of arrival and array parameters like the interelement spacing and the number of array element and the received signal bandwidth were studied. The output Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) and Interference to Noise Ratio (INR) are used as performance parameters for evaluation of these effects. It is found that the amount of degradation in the output SINR is increased significantly with the increase of array interelement spacing, number of array elements and when the angle of arrival of received signals are closet to end fire. Full Text
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