Vol.9, No.1 (2013)

Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,

Vol.9, No. 1 (2013)

No. Author Name  Title Abstract Full Text
1

Nabeel K. Abid AL-Sahib

Amer A. Moosa
Enhancing Stud Arc Welding Technique Vai Utilizing FuzzyLogic Approach (FLA).

A fuzzy logic approach (FLA) application in the process of stud arc welding environment was implemented under the condition of fuzziness input data. This paper is composed of the background of FLA, related research work review and points for developing in stud welding manufacturing. Then, it investigates thecase of developingstud arc welding process on the controversial certaintyof available equipment and human skills.Five parameters (welding time, sheet thickness, type of coating, welding current and stud shape) were studied.A pair of parameter was selected asiteration whichis welding current and welding time and used for verification corresponding with tensile strength as output results and this willconsider it as schema for other cases.The testing result in the case of crisp (exact) value verifyingied the uncertainty value of some criteria selected which open the concept to make the decision making process for some advance cases without implementation. This paper applied the proposed methodology using Matlab program, the graphic user interface (GUI) fuzzy tool box for the case study of screw DABOTEKSTUD welding machine, for 6 mm diameter stud. The sheet materials are (K14358 and K52355) according to (USN standards, and the stud materials are (54NiCrMoS6 and 4OCrMnMoS8-6) according to (DIN standards).This given information is very inevitable for the conventional crisp determination of the tensile stress for the particular specimens experimented and also for verifying the tensile test value estimate in the case of changing to a fuzzy value for two of the input variables.

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2

  A.Salam Al-Ammri

      Ghaith .A .Taki

Design of Robotic Arm Control System Mimics Human Arm Motion.

This paper presents a control system to make the robotic hand mimic human hand motion in real time and offline mode. The human hand tracking system is a wearable sensing arm (potentiometers) used to determine the position in space and to sense the grasping task of human hand. The maskable sensing arm was designed with same geometrical arrangement of robotic hand that needs to be controlled. The control software of a robot was implemented using Visual Basic and supported with graphical user interface (GUI). The control algorithm depends on joint to joint mapping method to match between the motions at each joint of portable sensing arm with corresponding joint of a robot in order to make the robot mimic the motion.

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3 Saad Zaghlul Saeed Al-Khayyt

Tuning PID Controller by Neural Network for Robot Manipulator Trajectory Tracking.

Ziegler and Nichols proposed the well-known Ziegler-Nichols method to tune the coefficients of PID controller. This tuning method is simple and gives fixed values for the coefficients which make PID controller have weak adaptabilities for the model parameters variation and changing in operating conditions. In order to achieve adaptive controller, the Neural Network (NN) self-tuning PID control is proposed in this paper which combines conventional PID controller and Neural Network learning capabilities. The proportional, integral and derivative (KP, KI, KD) gains are self tuned on-line by the NN output which is obtained due to the error value on the desired output of the system under control. The conventional PID controller in the robot manipulator is replaced by NN self tuning PID controller so as to achieve trajectory tracking with minimum steady-state error and improving the dynamic behavior (overshoot). The simulation results showed that the proposed controller has strong self-adaptability over the conventional PID controller. Full Text
4

Emad N.Abdulwahab

Ali Talib Abd Alzahra

Qasim A.Atiyah

Aircraft Lateral-Directional Stability in Critical Cases via Lyapunov Exponent Criterion.

Based on Lyapunov exponent criterion, the aircraft lateral-directional stability during critical flight cases is presented. A periodic motion or limit cycle oscillation isdisplayed. A candidate mechanism for the wing rock limit cycle is the inertia coupling between an unstable lateral-directional (Dutch roll) mode with stable longitudinal (short period) mode. The coupling mechanism is provided by the nonlinear interaction of motion related terms in the complete set equations of motion. To analyze the state variables of the system, the complete set of nonlinear equations of motion at different high angles of attack are solved. A novel analysis including the variation of roll angle as a function of angle of attack is proposed. Furthermore the variation of Lyapunov exponent parameter as function of time is introduced. The numerical result indicated that the system became lightly damped at high angle of attack with increasing the amplitude of aircraft state variables limit cycle. A good agreement between the numerical result and published work is obtained for the onset of limit cycle oscillation, almost at .

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5

Mohannad K. Sabir

Noor K. Muhsin

An Autocorrelative Approach for EMG Time-Frequency Analysis.

As they are the smallest functional parts of the muscle, motor units (MUs) are considered as the basic building blocks of the neuromuscular system. Monitoring MU recruitment, de-recruitment, and firing rate (by either invasive or surface techniques) leads to the understanding of motor control strategies and of their pathological alterations. EMG signal decomposition is the process of identification and classification of individual motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) in the interference pattern detected with either intramuscular or surface electrodes. Signal processing techniques were used in EMG signal decomposition to understand fundamental and physiological issues. Many techniques have been developed to decompose intramuscularly detected signals with various degrees of automation. This paper investigates the application of autocorrelation function (ACF) method to decompose EMG signals to their frequency components. It was found that using the proposed method gives a quite good frequency resolution as compared to that resulting from using short time fast Fourier transform (STFFT); thus more MU’s can be distinguished Full Text
6

Mustaffa Mohammed Basil

Farah Mohammed Ridha Masood

Mathematical Modeling of Glucose Regulation System in Term of Perturbed Coefficients.

In this research a recent developed practical modeling technique is applied for the glucose regulation system identification. By using this technique a set of mathematical models is obtained instead of single one to compensate for the  loss of information caused by the optimization technique in curve fitting algorithms, the diversity of members inside the single set is interpreted in term of restricted range of its parameters, also a diagnosis criteria is developed for detecting any disorder in the glucose regulation system by investigating the influence of variation of the parameters on the response of the system, this technique is applied in this research practically  for 20 cases with association of  National Center for Diabetes / Al Mustanseryia University.

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7

Safa A. Al-Naimi

Salih A.J. Sali

Hayder A. Mohsin

Simulation Study of Mass Transfer Coefficient in Slurry Bubble Column Reactor Using Neural Network.

The objective of this study was to develop neural network algorithm, (Multilayer Perceptron), based correlations for the prediction overall volumetric mass-transfer coefficient (kLa), in slurry bubble column for gas-liquid-solid systems. The Multilayer Perceptron is a novel technique based on the feature generation approach using back propagation neural network. Measurements of overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient were made with the air - Water, air - Glycerin and air - Alcohol systems as the liquid phase in bubble column of 0.15 m diameter. For operation with gas velocity in the range 0-20 cm/sec, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient was found to decrease with increasing solid concentration. From the experimental work 1575 data points for three systems, were collected and used to predicate  kLa. Using SPSS 17 software, predicting of overall volumetric mass-transfer coefficient (kLa) was carried out and an output of 0.05264 sum of square error was obtained for trained data and 0.01064 for test data.

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8

Mohamed Jasim Mohamed

Mustaffa Waad Abbas

Obstacles Avoidance for Mobile Robot Using Enhanced Artificial Potential Field.

In this paper, an enhanced artificial potential field (EAPF) planner is introduced. This planner is proposed to rapidly find online solutions for the mobile robot path planning problems, when the underlying environment contains obstacles with unknown locations and sizes. The classical artificial potential field represents both the repulsive force due to the detected obstacle and the attractive force due to the target. These forces can be considered as the primary directional indicator for the mobile robot. However, the classical artificial potential field has many drawbacks. So, we suggest two secondary forces which are called the midpoint repulsive force and the off-sensors attractive force. These secondary forces and modified primary forces are merged to overcomethe drawbacks like dead ends and U shape traps. The proposed algorithm acquirs information of unknown environment by collecting the readings of five infrared sensors with detecting range of 0.8 m. The proposed algorithm is applied on two different environments also it is compared with another algorithm. The simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm always converges to the desired target. In addition, the performance of algorithm is well and meets the requirements in terms of saved time and computational resources.

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9

Rana A.Majed

Majid H. Abdulmajeed

Mohamed Mahdy
Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Low Carbon Steel Weldments.

This research involves studying the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of “low carbon steel” (0.077wt% C) before and after welding using Arc, MIG and TIG welding. The mechanical properties include testing of microhardness, tensile strength, the results indicate that microhardness of TIG, MIG welding is more than arc welding, while tensile strength in arc welding more than TIG and MIG.

The corrosion behavior of low carbon weldments was performed by potentiostat at scan rate 3mV.sec-1 in 3.5% NaCl to show the polarization resistance and calculate the corrosion rate from data of linear polarization by “Tafel extrapolation method”. The results indicate that the TIG welding increase the corrosion current density and anodic Tafel slop, while decrease the polarization resistance compared with unwelded low carbon steel. Cyclic polarization were measured to show resistance of specimens to pitting corrosion and to calculate the forward and reveres potentials. The results show shifting the forward, reverse and pitting potentials toward active direction for weldments samples compared with unwelded sample.

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