Vol.9, No. 4 (2013)


Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,


Vol.9, No. 4 (2013)


No. Author Name  Title Abstract Full Text

Mohammed Abd Atiya Al-Saraj

Ameel Mohammed Rahman

Maha H. Al-Hassani

Enhancement of Iraqi Light Naphtha Octane Number Using Pt Supported HMOR Zeolite Catalyst.

The hydroconversion of Iraqi light straight run naphtha was studied on zeolite catalyst. 0.3wt.%Pt/HMOR catalyst was prepared locally and used in the present work. The hydroconversion performed on a continuous fixed-bed laboratory reaction unit. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 200 to 350°C, pressure range of 3 to 15 bars, LHSV range of 0.5-2.5h-1, and the hydrogen to naphtha ratio of 300. The results show that the hydroconversion of Iraqi light straight naphtha increases with increase in reaction temperature and decreases with increase in LHSV. Full Text

Ammar Al-Baldaw

Shatha K. Muallah

Olaf Wünsch

Thermo-Rheological Investigation and Modeling of the Shear Viscosity of Polypropylene above the Melting Temperature.

The increasing use of polymeric materials in the daily life, leads to challenges in the processing industry to deliver high performance materials with affordable terms. However, new processing techniques lead to high costs. In order to reduce processing costs it is necessary to understand the non-Newtonian behavior of the polymers in their molten state to be able to simulate the processes before the construction of the plants starts. Here the shear thinning behavior of the viscosity of polymeric melts is essential. Thus, this paper deals with the experimental investigation of the thermo-rheological behavior of the viscosity of one of the most used polymers (Polypropylene) over a wide range of temperatures and shear rates.  Furthermore, a modeling approach of the viscosity via a generalized non-Newtonian law combined with an Arrhenius model is done.  Full Text

C.Kh. Haweel

Basma A. Abdul-Majeed

Mohammed Y. Eisa

Beneficiation of Iraqi Akashat Phosphate Ore Using Organic Acids for the Production of Wet Process Phosphoric Acid.

In the present work, leaching process studiedusing organic acids (acetic acid and lactic acid) to extract phosphate from the Iraqi Akashat phosphate ore by separation of calcareous materials (mainly calcite). This approach characterized by energy conservation, environmental enhancement by recovery of calcite as calcium sulfate (gypsum), keeping the physical and chemical properties of apatite. Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometer. From the obtained experimental data it was found that using the two organic acids yields closed purity values of the produced apatite at the optimum conditions, while at different acid concentrations, it was found that the efficiency of acetic acid is higher at the low acid concentration (2 wt%), and that lactic acid gives the higher efficiency at high acid concentration (10 wt%).Concerning the ratio of acid volume to ore weight ratio, it was found that reducing this ratio to 5 ml/gm cause an increase in the purity of apatite at the optimum concentrations of the two acids.  Full Text
4 Alyaa Esam Mahdi

Spectral Study of Pt (II), Cr (II) Polymeric Complexes of the Ligand  N- Crotonyl -2- Hydroxy-Phenylazomethine.

    The polymeric complexes were obtained from the reaction of polymeric Schiff base.N-crotonyl-2-hydroxyphenylazomethine (HL), with divalent metals Pt (II), Cr (II). The modes of bonding and overall geometry of the complexes were determine through spectroscopic methods and compared with that reported from analogous monomeric ligand. This study revealed square planer geometry around the metal center for [Pt(L)Cl] and distorted octahedral geometry for Cr complex [Cr(L)Cl(H2O)2]. Full Text

Khulood A. Dagherm

Ahmed S. Al-Araji

Design of an Adaptive PID Neural Controller for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor based on Particle Swarm Optimization.

A particle swarm optimization algorithm and neural network like self-tuning PID controller for CSTR system is presented. The scheme of the discrete-time PID control structure is based on neural network and tuned the parameters of the PID controller by using a particle swarm optimization PSO technique as a simple and fast training algorithm. The proposed method has advantage that it is not necessary to use a combined structure of identification and decision because it used PSO. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive PID neural control algorithm in terms of minimum tracking error and smoothness control signal obtained for non-linear dynamical CSTR system. Full Text

Abdul Satar J. Al-Saraf

 Suhad A. R. Al-Jumaily

The Power Enhancement of a Mini-Gas Turbine by Adding Ethanol to the Compressor Inlet Air.

An experimental study is conducted on the utilization of the inlet ethanol injection technique in order to evaluate its impact on the performance of a two-shaft T200D mini-gas turbine engine. The maximum degradation recorded in power output was 32.8% at the climate temperature of 45oC. Nevertheless, at that temperature, adding ethanol with Eth/LPG ratio of 20% by volume brought an enhancement in power output of 19.2% compared to normal LPG run. SFC of the dual-fuel engine ranked a level of 22% higher than that with pure LPG consumption. The overall efficiency suffered a maximum reduction of 14.4% with Eth/LPG fuel ratio of 20%, but when the loading was raised beyond 70% of the engine full load; the efficiency of dual-fuel engine excelled the normal LPG engine by 3.1% at the corresponding Eth/LPG ratio maintaining a power turbine speed of 12000 rpm. Full Text

Jasim M. Mahdi

Ali M. Rasham

Thamir H. Ali

Numerical Analysis of Double Diffusive Laminar Natural Convection in a Right Angle Triangular Solar Collector.

A numerical study of the double-diffusive laminar natural convection in a right triangular solar collector has been investigated in present work. The base (absorber) and glass cover of the collector are isothermal and isoconcentration surfaces, while the vertical wall is considered adiabatic and impermeable. Both aiding and opposing buoyancy forces have been studied. Governing equations in vorticity-stream function form are discretized via finite-difference method and are solved numerically by iterative successive under relaxation (SUR) technique. Computer code for MATLAB software has been developed and written to solve mathematical model. Results in the form of streamlines, isotherms, isoconcentration, average Nusselt, and average Sherwood number, are presented for wide range of the buoyancy ratio , angle of inclined glass cover with horizontal coordinate  , Lewis number  , thermal Rayleigh number  , and Prandtl number  .  Full Text
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