Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,
Vol. 11, No. 2 (2015)
Robust controller design requires a proper definition of uncertainty bounds. These uncertainty bounds are commonly selected randomly and conservatively for certain stability, without regard for controller performance. This issue becomes critically important for multivariable systems with high nonlinearities, as in Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB) System. Flexibility and advanced learning abilities of intelligent techniques make them appealing for uncertainty estimation. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of robust H2/H∞ controller for AMB based on intelligent estimation of uncertainty bounds using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Simulation results reveal that the robust controller design objectives of wide bandwidth and improved performance are satisfied for a wide range of frequency variations. It can be concluded that the intelligent uncertainty weighting functions can precisely compensate for the effects of modelling errors and nonlinearities in the system.
Rana A. Anaee
Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban
Russul F. Faleh
Corrosion Behavior of V2AlC and Cr2AlC Compared with SS 316L in NaOH at Four Temperatures.
Aseel Basim Abdul Hussein
Emad Saadi AL-Hassan
Reem Alaa Mohamed
Influence of Coating with Some Natural Based Materials on the Erosion Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin.
In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as a matrix, 6% volume fractions of glass fibers (G.F) as reinforcement and 3%, 6% volume fractions of preparation natural material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust) as filler. Studied the erosion wear behavior and coating by natural wastes (Rice Husk Ash) with epoxy resin after erosion. The results showed the non – reinforced epoxy have lower resistance erosion than natural based material composites and the specimen (Epoxy+6%glass fiber+6%RHA) has higher resistance erosion than composites reinforced with carrot powder and sawdust at 30cm , angle 60°, grin size of sand 425µm , temperature 30Ċ , 300 gm salt content in 2liter of water and 15 hour. Coating specimen with mixed epoxy resin -RHA with particles size in the range (1.4-4.2) µm improves erosion wear resistance characteristics of the coated specimen, coating thickness was (16 ± 1) μm and after erosion at (15 hour) the thickness was (10) μm .
Study on Flow Characteristics and Heat Transfer Behavior Around Different Geometrical Corrugated Extended Surfaces.
The current study presents numerical investigation of the fluid (air) flow characteristics and convection heat transfer around different corrugated surfaces geometry in the low Reynolds number region (Re<1000). The geometries are included wavy, triangle, and rectangular. The effect of different geometry parameters such as aspect ratio and number of cycles per unit length on flow field characteristics and heat transfer was estimated and compared with each other. The computerized fluid dynamics package (ANSYS 14) is used to simulate the flow field and heat transfer, solve the governing equations, and extract the results. It is found that the turbulence intensity for rectangular extended surface was larger than that of triangle and wavy extended surfaces at the same aspect ratio and number of cycles per unit length. Also, the increasing of turbulence intensity leads to enhance the heat transfer coefficient and consequently the amount of heat transfer. According to previous results, if the pressure head losses along the upstream are not important, the using of rectangular extended surface is better than the triangle which is also better than wavy extended surface.
Study Tensile Strength and Wear Rate for Unsaturated Polyester Resin and Nitrile butadiene Rubber Polymer Blend.
Riad Harwill Abdul Abas
Nabil Kadhim Taieh
Experimental Study of the Thermal Diffusivity and Heat Capacity Concerning Some Duplex Stainless Steel.
In the present work, thermal diffusivity and heat capacity measurements have been investigated in temperature range between RT and 1473 K for different duplex stainless steel supplied by Outokumpu Stainless AB, Sweden. The purpose of this study is to get a reliable thermophysical data of these alloys and to study the effect of microstructure on the thermal diffusivity and heat capacity value. Results show the ferrite content in the duplex stainless steel increased with temperature at equilibrium state. On the other hand, ferrite content increased with increasing Cr/Ni ratio and there is no significant effect of ferrite content on the thermal diffusivity value at room temperature. Furthermore, the heat capacity of all samples increases with temperature from room temperature to 473 K, while it decreases with increasing temperature until 1073 K. Then it increases with temperature at higher temperature. Curie temperature and sigma phase formation temperature can be detected by heat capacity-temperature curves.
In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar module could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic power generation. Changing in powers due to higher temperatures (25oC, 35oC, and 45oC) have been done for three types of solar modules: monocrystalline , polycrystalline, and copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS). The Prova 200 solar panel analyzer is used for the professional testing of three solar modules at different ambient temperatures; 25oC, 35oC, and 45oC and solar radiation range 100-1000 W/m2. Copper indium gallium (di) selenide module has the lowest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.38%/oC) while monocrystalline module has the highest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.54%/oC), while polycrystalline module has a percentage power drop of 0.49%/oC.
Profiles and Geotechnical Properties for some Basra Soils.
Basra province is known for its logistic location for trading activity and oil industry. By geological point of view, Basra areas are believed to consist mainly of alternation of (clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sand) type of soil. Any development of industry in this area should be affected by the occurrence of the clay soil. That is why the investigation to the soil is more than necessary. In this case, a vast testing program was carried out by the author to evaluate the various formations constituting the of some Basra soils. An attempt to characterize and discuss the nature, minerals, engineering behavior and field properties of soil samples extracted from more than one thousand and one hundred boring liner meters of three sites was performed. The average values of various geotechnical design properties are calculated and plotted with depth. A preview of climate, geology, seismicity and earthquakes of the study area was conducted. Finally, the typical soil profiles were prepared.
Tahreer S. Mansour
Fahad M. Abdulhussein
Dual Measurements of Pressure And Temperature With Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor.
The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology has been rapidly applied in the sensing technology field. In this work, uniform FBG was used as pressure sensor based on measuring related Bragg wavelength shift. The pressure was applied directly by air compressor to the sensor and the pressure was ranged from 1 to 6 bar.
This sensor also was affected by the external temperature so as a result it could be used as a temperature sensor. This sensor could be used to monitor the pressure of dams. It has been shown from the result that the sensor is very sensitive to the pressure and the sensitivity was (67 pm\bar) and is very sensitive to temperature and the sensitivity was (10pm\ oC).
Qasim H. Alwan Ameel
Mohanned Hassib Salman
Zainab Hassan Ali
Abdul Karim Abdul Satar
Janan Abdul Ameer
Characterization of Biochar Produced from IRAQI Palm Fronds by Thermal Pyrolysis.
The present paper focuses in a particular on the study of the biochar production conditions by the thermal pyrolysis of biomass from local Iraqi palm fronds, in the absence of oxygen. The biochar product can be used as soil improvers. The effect of temperature on the extent of the thermal pyrolysis process was studied in the range from 523 to 773K with a residence time of 15 minutes and nitrogen gas flow rate of 0.1 l/min. The produced biochar was characterized as will as biomass and degradation products. The results showed that the rate of biochar production decreases with the increasing in temperature, also it was noted that the normalized biochar surface area and pore size increases with the increasing in temperature.
The results showed an increase in the biochar ability to absorb water and the percent of water content increases with increasing temperature. The quality and quantity of the products of the thermal pyrolysis of biomass depend directly on the temperature and on the biomass basic composition of the compounds: hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin.
FTIR analysis gave an excellent description to the nature of the active groups on the biochar surface. These groups vary with the temperature and biochar composition (i.e. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin).