Vol.8, No. 1 (2012)


Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,


Vol.8, No. 1 (2012)


No. Author Name  Title Abstract Full Text

Mohammed A. Abdalla

Khalifa A. Salim

Zinah Jaafar Mohammed

WLAN Integrated with GPRS Network Securely.

In this paper a WLAN network that accesses the Internet through a GPRS network was implemented and tested. The proposed network is managed by the Linux based server. Because of the limited facilities of GPRS such as dynamic IP addressing besides to its limited bandwidth a number of techniques are implemented to overcome these limitations.  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server was added to provide a single central control for all TCP/IP resources. Squid Proxy  was added to provide caching of the redundant accessed Web content to reduce the Internet bandwidth usage and speeding up the client’s download time. Network Address Translation (NAT) service was configured to share one IP address among several different systems. In order to accomplish a secure channel to exchange data between two network devices, the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol was added.  Full Text
2 Ban M. Khammas

Design a Fault Tolerance for Real Time Distributed System.

This paper designed a fault tolerance for soft real time distributed system (FTRTDS). This system is designed to be independently on specific mechanisms and facilities of the underlying real time distributed system. It is designed to be distributed on all the computers in the distributed system and controlled by a central unit. Besides gathering information about a target program spontaneously, it provides information about the target operating system and the target hardware in order to diagnose the fault before occurring, so it can handle the situation before it comes on. And it provides a distributed system with the reactive capability of reconfiguring and reinitializing after the occurrence of a failure. Full Text
3 Iman M.G. Alwan  

Color Image Denoising Using Stationary Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Wiener Filter.

 The denoising of a natural image corrupted by Gaussian noise is a problem in signal or image processing.  Much work has been done in the field of wavelet thresholding but most of it was focused on statistical modeling of wavelet coefficients and the optimal choice of thresholds.  This paper describes a new method for the suppression of noise in image by fusing the stationary wavelet denoising technique with adaptive wiener filter. The wiener filter is applied to the reconstructed image for the approximation coefficients only, while the thresholding technique is applied to the details coefficients of the transform, then get the final denoised image is obtained by combining the two results. The proposed method was applied by using MATLAB R2010a with color images contaminated by white Gaussian noise. Compared with stationary wavelet and wiener filter algorithms, the experimental results show that the proposed method provides better subjective and objective quality, and obtain up to 3.5 dB PSNR improvement. Full Text
4 Inas Jawad Kadhim

A New Audio Steganography System Based on Auto-Key Generator.

Stenography is the art of hiding the very presence of communication by embedding secret message into innocuous looking cover document, such as digital image, videos, sound files, and other computer files that contain perceptually irrelevant or redundant information as covers or carriers to hide secret messages. In this paper, a new Least Significant Bit (LSB) nonsequential embedding technique in wave audio files is introduced. To support the immunity of proposed hiding system, and in order to recover some weak aspect inherent with the pure implementation of stego-systems, some auxiliary processes were suggested and investigated including the use of hidden text jumping process and stream ciphering algorithm. Besides, the suggested system used self crypto-hiding pseudo random key generator. The auto-key generator has purposes to investigate the encryption and embedding processes .The hiding results shows no noise in the stego-wave file after embedding process, also no difference in size is found between the original wave audio file and stego-wave file. Full Text
5 Ali Raad Mohammed Jawad

Effect of Solid Properties on Axial Liquid Dispersion in Bubble Column.

Experiments were conducted to study axial liquid dispersion coefficient in slurry bubble column of 0.15 m inside diameter and 1.6 m height using perforated plate gas distributor of 54 holes of a size equal to 1 mm diameter and with a 0.24 free area of holes to the cross sectional area of the column. The three phase system consists of air, water and PVC used as the solid phase. The effect of solid loading (0, 30 and 60 kg/m3) and solid diameter (0.7, 1.5 and 3 mm) on the axial liquid dispersion coefficient at different axial location (25, 50 and 75 cm) and superficial gas velocity covered homogeneous-heterogeneous flow regime (1-10 cm/s) were studied in the present work. The results show that the axial liquid dispersion coefficient increases with increasing superficial gas velocity, axial distance, solid concentration and an inverse relationship with particles diameter. Full Text
6 Zena Waleed Abass

Effect of Construction Joints on Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beams.

Construction joints are stopping places in the process of placing concrete, and they are required because in many structures it is impractical to place concrete in one continuous operation. The amount of concrete that can be placed at one time is governed by the batching and mixing capacity and by the strength of the formwork. A good construction joint should provide adequate flexural and shear continuity through the interface. In this study, the effect of location of construction joints on the performance of reinforced concrete structural elements is experimentally investigated.  Nineteen beam specimens with dimensions of 200×200×950 mm were tested. The variables investigated are the location of the construction joints (at midspan or at third point of the specimens), type of construction joints (vertical, inclined, and key construction joints), and presence of stirrups at these joints. The specimens were tested using 1000 kN computer controlled versatile electronic testing machine. The specimens were positioned in the machine so that the deflection at center and\or at the location of construction joint was measured at each load step. Full Text

Sabah Tarik Ahmed

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

Effect of Fuel Cetane Number on Multi-Cylinders Direct Injection Diesel EnginePerformance and Exhaust Emissions.

Due to the energy crisis and the stringent environmental regulations, diesel engines are offering good hope for automotive vehicles. However, a lot of work is needed to reduce the diesel exhaust emissions and give the way for full utilization of the diesel fuel’s excellent characteristics. A kind of cetane number improver has been proposed and tested to be used with diesel fuel as     ameans of reducing exhaust emissions. The addition of (2-ethylhexyl nitrate) was designed to raise fuel cetane number to three stages, 50, 52 and 55 compared to the used conventional diesel fuel whose CN was 48.5. The addition of CN improver results in the decrease brake specific fuel consumption by about 12.55%, and raise brake thermal efficiency to about 9%.  Simultaneously, the emission characteristics of four fuels are determined in a diesel engine. At high loads, a little penalty on CO and HC emissions compared to baseline diesel fuel. NOx emissions of the higher CN fuels are decreased 6%, and CO of these fuels is reduced to about 30.7%. Engine noise reduced with increasing CN to about 10.95%. The results indicate the potential of diesel reformation for clean combustion in diesel engines. Full Text

Ahmed W. Mustafa

Ihsan Ali Ghani

Natural Convection in Trapezoidal Enclosure Heated Partiallyfrom Below.

Natural convection in a trapezoidal enclosure with partial heating from below and symmetrical cooling from the sides has been investigated numerically. The heating is simulated by a centrally located heat source on the bottom wall, and four different values of the dimensionless heat source length, 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5 are considered. The laminar flow field is analyzed numerically by solving the steady, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations. The Cartesian velocity components and pressure on a collocated (non-staggered) grid are used as dependent variables in the momentum equations  discretized by finite volume method; body fitted coordinates are used to represent the trapezoidal enclosure, and grid generation technique based on elliptic partial differential equations is employed. SIMPLE algorithm is used to adjust the velocity field to satisfy the conservation of mass. The range of Rayleigh number is (103≤ Ra ≤105) and Prandtl number is 0.7. The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with the increases of the source length.  Full Text
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