Vol.7, No. 3 (2011)

 

Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,

 

Vol.7, No. 3 (2011)

 

No. Author Name  Title Abstract Full Text
1 Aslan Sabah Al-Deen Jalal Abdi

Steady State Performance Investigation of a Three Phase Induction Motor Running Off Unbalanced Supply Voltages.

The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of a conventional three phase induction motor supplied by unbalanced voltages. An effort to study the motor steady state performance under this disturbance is introduced. Using per phase equivalent circuit analysis with the concept of symmetrical components approach, the steady state performance is theoretically calculated. Also, a model for the induction motor with the MATLAB/Simulink SPS tools has been implemented and steady state results were obtained. Both results are compared and show good correlation as well. The simulation model is introduced to support and enhance electrical engineers with a complete understanding for the steady state performance of a fully loaded induction motor operating from unbalanced supply voltages. 

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2 Yarub Omer Naji Al-Azzawi

Fuzzy Control of the Robotic Hands Catching Force Using Muscle Wires Actuator.

The aim of this research is controlling the amount of the robotic hand catching force using the artificial muscle wire as an actuator to achieve the desired response of the robotic hand in order to catch different things without destroying or dropping them; where the process is to be similar to that of human hand catching way. The proper selection of the amount of the catching force is achieved through out simulation using the fuzzy control technique. The mechanism of the arrangement of the muscle wires is proposed to achieve good force selections. The results indicate the feasibility of using this proposed technique which mimics human reasoning where as the weight of the caught peace increases, the force increases also with approximately the same amount of increment.

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3

Hussain K. Hussain

Salah M. Ali

Yazan M. Ali

Upgrading Sharky Baghdad Heavy Crude Oil.

Shaky Baghdad heavy crude oil 22 API is processed by distillation and solvent extraction. The purpose of distillation is to separate the light distillates    (light fractions) which represent 35% of heavy crude oil, and to obtain the reduced crude oil. The heavy residue (9 API) is  extracted with Iraqi light naphtha to get the deasphaltened oil (DAO), the extraction carried out with temperature range of 20-75 oC, solvent to oil ratio 5-15:1(ml:g) and a mixing time of 15 minutes. In general, results show that API of DAO increased twice the API of reduced crude oil while sulfur and metals content decreased 20% and 50% respectively. Deasphaltened oil produced from various operating conditions blended with the light distillates obtained from distillation in a constant blending percentage of 35% light for all mixtures. These blends produced synthetic crude oil with API up to 30 suitable for using in the subsequent hydrocarbon processes.

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4 Alyaa Khadhier Mageed Effect of Solid Loading on Carbon Dioxide Absorption in Bubble Column.

In the present work experiments were conducted to study  the effect of solid loading (1,5 and 9 vol.%) on the enhancement of carbon dioxide absorption in bubble column at various volumetric gas flow rate (0.75, 1 and 1.5 m3/h) and absorbent concentration (caustic soda)( 0.1,0.5 and 1 M  ). Activated carbon and alumina oxide (Al2O3) are used as solid particles. The Danckwerts method was used to calculate interfacial area and individual mass transfer coefficients during absorption of carbon dioxide in a bubble column. The results show that the absorption rate was increased with increasing volumetric gas flow rate, caustic soda concentration and solid loading. Mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area were increased with increasing volumetric gas flow rate, and solid loading.

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5

Kadhum M. Shabe

Suhama E. Salah

Mervit M. Janbi

Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride.

The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl) when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage dosages range of 50-2000 mg/L, rapid mixing at 200 rpm for 2 min, followed by slow mixing at 40 rpm for 15 min and settling time of 30 min. The effectiveness of Fenugreek mucilage was measured by the reduction of turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The results show that the combination of PACl and Fenugreek mucilage is more effective than alum, PACl and alum + Fenugreek mucilage. Full Text
6 Sanaa Numan Mohammed

Analysis of Temperature and Residual Stress Distribution in CO2 Laser Welded Aluminum 6061 Plates Using FEM.

This paper develops a nonlinear transient three-dimensional heat transfer finite element model and a rate independent three-dimensional deformation model, developed for the CO2 laser welding simulations in Al-6061-T6 alloy. Simulations are performed using an indirect coupled thermal-structural method for the process of welding. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of Al-6061-T6, effect of latent heat of fusion, and the convective and radiative boundary conditions are included in the model. The heat input to the model is assumed to be a Gaussian heat source. The finite element code ANSYS12, along with a few FORTRAN subroutines, are employed to obtain the numerical results. The benefit of the proposed methodology is that it offers the capability of optimizing laser welding process, and also provides a reliable estimation of the developed temperatures, as well as the thermal stress (residual stress) and strain fields reducing the experimental effort.

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7

Ezzat N. Slaiman

Haidar M. Al-Qamaje

Shahad Z. Atta

Composition and Temperature Dependence of Excess Volume of Heavy Oil-Stocks Mixtures + (Gas oil or Toluene or Reformate).

Binary mixtures of three, heavy oil-stocks was subjected to density measurements at temperatures of 30, 35 and 40 °C. and precise data was acquired on the volumetric behavior of these systems. The results are reported in terms of equations for excess specific volumes of mixtures. The heavy oil-stocks used were of good varity, namely 40 stock, 60 stock, and 150 stock. The lightest one is 40 stock with °API gravity 33.69 while 60 stock is a middle type and 150 stock is a heavy one, with °API gravity 27.74 and 23.79 respectively. Temperatures in the range of 30-40 °C have a minor effect on excess volume of heavy oil-stock binary mixture thus, insignificant expansion or shrinkage is observed by increasing the temperature this effect becomes more significant although the heavy oil-stocks is spiked with hydrocarbons like (gas oil, toluene and reformate). Full Text
8 Hayder Abed Dhahad

Charge Stratification and Fuel/Air Ratio Effect on the Efficiency of (ICADE) I. C. Engine Cycle.

The Isolated Combustion and Diluted Expansion (ICADE) internal combustion engine cycle combines the advantages of constant volume combustion of the Otto cycle with the high compression ratio of the Diesel cycle.   This work studies the effect of isolated air mass (charge stratification) on the efficiency of the cycle; the analysis shows that the decrease of isolated air mass will increase the efficiency of the cycle and the large dilution air mass will quench all NOx forming reactions and reduce unburned hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the effect of Fuel / Air ratio on the efficiency shows that the increase of Fuel / Air ratio will increase efficiency of the cycle.

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9

Sarmad I. Ibrahim

Studying the Effect of Addition Particles of Alumina (Al2O3)

and Zirconia (ZrO2), on Some Mechanical Properties for Matrix Composites (Al-Si-Mg) Alloy

This study is concerned with the effect of adding two kinds of ceramic materials on the mechanical properties of (Al-7%Si- 0.3%Mg) alloy, which are zirconia with particle size (20μm > P.S ≥ 0.1μm) and alumina with particle size (20μm > P.S ≥ 0.1μm) and adding them to the alloy with weight ratios (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1%). Stirring casting method has been used to make composite material by using vortex technique which is used to pull the particles to inside the melted metals and distributed them homogenously.

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