Vol.6, No. 3 (2010)

 

Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,

 

Vol.6, No. 3 (2010)

 

No. Author Name  Title Abstract Full Text
1

Khalid F. Chasib Al-Jiboury

Moayad abd al-Hassan

 

Extraction of Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons From Petroleum Products Using Sulfolane as Industrial Solvent

Liquid – liquid equilibria data were measured at 293.15 K for the pseudo ternary system (sulfolane + alkanol) + octane + toluene. It is observed that the selectivity of pure sulfolane increases with cosolvent methanol but decreases with increasing the chain length of hydrocarbon in 1-alkanol. The nonrandom two liquid (NRTL) model, UNIQUAC model and UNIFAC model were used to correlate the experimental data and to predict the phase composition of the systems studied. The calculation based on NRTL model gave a good representation of the experimental tie-line data for all systems studied. The agreement between the correlated and the experimental results was very good. Full Text
2 Khalidah A. Jaafar Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of Date Palm Pulp Waste     The purpose of this preliminary study is to verify the possibility of using Iraqi Zahdi date palm biomass as a resource for biogas production, methane in particular using thermophilic anaerobic digestion with waste water treatment activated sludge. Moreover, is to investigate the influence of extra nutrients addition to the digestion mixture. Biogas was captured in sealed jars with remote sensing modules connected to computer with integrated program to record the gas pressure continuously. A total gas pressure with 67% Methane was produced from date pulp waste fermentation with a yield of 0.57 Lit for each gram volatile solid of substrate. Addition of 1% yeast extract solution as nutrient increased Methane yield in liters by 5.9%. This is the first time in literature to record biogas production data from Iraqi date palm biomass. Full Text
3 Najwa S. Majeed

Prediction of the Scale Removal Rate in Heat Exchanger Piping System Using the Analogies between Mass and Momentum Transfer

The possibility of predicting the mass transfer controlled CaCO3 scale removal   rate has been investigated. Experiments were carried out using chelating agents as a cleaning solution at different time and Reynolds’s number. The results of CaCO3 scale removal or (mass transfer rate) (as it is the controlling process) are compared with proposed model of prandtl’s and Taylor particularly based on the concept of analogy among momentum and mass transfer. Correlation for the variation of Sherwood number ( or mass transfer rate ) with Reynolds’s number have been  Full Text
4 Alaa' Mshjel Ali A Study of the Effect of Kaolin as a Fuel Oil Additive on the Corrosion Inhibition of Fireside Superheater Boiler Tubes     The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of Kaolin as a fuel oil additive to minimize the fireside corrosion of superheater boiler tubes of ASTM designation (A213-T22) by increasing the melting point of the formed slag on the outside tubes surface, through the formation of new compounds with protective properties to the metal surface. The study included measuring corrosion rates at different temperatures with and without additive use with various periods of time, through crucible test method and weight loss technique. Full Text
5

Nabeel K. Abid Al- Sahib

Ahmed Rahman Jasim 
Guiding Mobile Robot by Applying Fuzzy Approach on Sonar Sensors This study describes how fuzzy logic control FLC can be applied to sonars of mobile robot. The fuzzy logic approach has effects on the navigation of mobile robots in a partially known environment that are used in different industrial and society applications. The fuzzy logic provides a mechanism for combining sensor data from all sonar sensors which present different information. The FLC approach is achieved by means of Fuzzy Decision Making method type of fuzzy logic controller. The proposed controller is responsible for the obstacle avoidance of the mobile robot while traveling through a map from a home point to a goal point. The FLC is built as a subprogram based on the intelligent architecture (IA). The software program  uses the Advanced Robotics Interface for Applications (ARIA), it is programmed with C++ package ( Visual C++.Net ), and Networking software is used for setup Wireless TCP/IP Ethernet-to-Serial connection between robot and PC. The results show that the developed mobile robot travels successfully from one location to another and reaches its goal after avoiding all obstacles that are located in its way. The platform mobile robot is a Pioneer 3 DX that is equipped with Sonar sensors. Full Text
6 Nabeel Mohammed Jasim

Free Convection in an Inclined Concentric Annular Square Cavities Filled With Porous Medium and Heated By Non-Uniform Temperature

A numerical study of the two-dimensional steady free convection flow in an inclined annulus between two concentric square cavities filled with a porous medium is presented in this paper for the case when the side outer walls are kept with differentially heated temperature while the horizontal outer walls and the inner walls are insulated. The heated wall is assumed to have spatial sinusoidal temperature variation about a constant mean value. The Darcy model is used and the fluid is assumed to be a standard Boussinesq fluid. For the Cartesian coordinate system, the governing equations which were used in stream function form are discretized by using the finite difference method with successive under – relaxation method (SUR) and are solved by Gauss-Siedel iterative method. The upwind scheme was used for the transport terms in the energy conservation equation. The results are presented to demonstrate the streamlines, the isotherms, and the Nusselt number depending on the Rayleigh number ranging from (Ra =10 to 1000), dimension ratio from (Dr = 0.15 to 0.45), and the inclination angle from ( = 0o to 45o). Also the effects of the amplitude ( =0 to 1) and the wave number (f =0 to 5) of the heated side wall temperature variation on the free convection are investigated. The results show the effect of previous parameters (Ra, Dr, ,  , and f) on the flow fields and temperature profiles.  Full Text
7

Basim Ajeel Abass

Mustafa Mohammed K.

The Effect of Surface Roughness on Thermohydrodynamic Performance in Misaligned Journal Bearings

In this work an approach has been developed to investigate the influence of surface roughness on thermohydrodynamic performance in aligned and misaligned journal bearings by considering an average flow model and deriving the shear flow factor for various roughness configurations, similar to the pressure flow factor. An average Reynolds equation for rough surfaces is defined in term of pressure and shear flow factors, which can be obtained by numerical flow simulation, though the use of measured or numerically generated rough surfaces. Reynolds, heat conduction and energy equations are solved simultaneously by using a suitable numerical technique (Finite Difference Method) to obtain the pressure and temperature distribution through the oil film thickness of the journal bearing. These equations are obtained for isotropic surfaces and for surfaces with directional patterns.  Full Text
8

Majid H. Abdulmageed

Slafa I. Ibrahim

Corrosion Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Different Media

In this work the corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by using galvanostatic measurements at room temperature in different media which includ sodium chloride (food salt), sodium tartrate (presence in jellies, margarine, and sausage casings,etc.), sodium oxalate (presence in fruits, vegetables,etc.), acetic acid (presence in vinegar), phosphoric acid (presence in drink), sodium carbonate (presence in 7up drink,etc.), and sodium hydroxide in order to compare.      Corrosion parameters were interpreted in these media which involve corrosion potential( Ecorr) and corrosion current density (icorr), since the results of (Ecorr) indicate that Oxalate ions are more corrosive than other materials while the results of (icorr) indicate that NaCl is more corrosive than other materials. Cathodic and Anodic Tafel slopes that were used to calculate the polarization resistance (Rp) to know which materials effect on Ti-6Al-4V alloy uses in dental materials and the results of (Rp) were: Na2CO3 >Oxalate >H3PO4 >CH3COOH >NaOH >Tartrate >NaCl. Full Text
9

Akram A. Jaffar

Sadiq J. Abass

Summer S. M. Mukhtar
The Stress Distribution on the Zygapophyseal Joint of Lumbar Vertebra by ANSYS Program Zygapophyseal joints (or facet joints), are a plane synovial joint which located between the articular facet processes of the vertebral arch which is freely guided movable joints. Ten dried vertebrae were used for the lumbar region and taking (L4) as a sample to reveal stress pathways across the joints by using ANSYS program under different loading conditions which used Finite Elements Analysis model. Results obtained from the ANSYS program are important in understanding the boundary conditions for load analysis and the points of stress concentration which explained from the anatomical point of view and linked to muscle and ligament attachments. This model used as a computational tool to joint biomechanics and to prosthetic implant analysis. Full Text
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