Vol. 11, No. 3 (2015)

Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,

Vol. 11, No. 3 (2015)



Author Name

Research Title


Full Text


Marwa K. Qate’a


Ali H. kadhum


Faiz F. Mustafa

The Influence of the Magnetic Abrasive Finishing System for Cylindrical Surfaces on the Surface Roughness and MRR.

Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is one of the advanced finishing processes, which produces a high level of surface quality and is primarily controlled by a magnetic field. This paper study the effect of the magnetic abrasive finishing system on the material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) in terms of magnetic abrasive finishing system for eight of input parameters, and three levels according to Taguchi array (L27) and using the regression model to analysis the output (results). These parameters are the (Poles geometry angle, Gap between the two magnetic poles, Grain size powder, Doze of the ferromagnetic abrasive powder, DC current, Workpiece velocity, Magnetic poles velocity, and Finishing time). This work includes the classification of the MAF system, implementation of MAF machine and magnetic poles, preparing ferromagnetic abrasive powder by mix the iron oxide with industrial diamond powder and studying the effects of magnetic abrasive finishing on the MRR and surface roughness. MINITAB software was used to estimate the influence of the Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) parameters on the MRR and Surface Roughness for a cylindrical duralumin (2024) workpiece. The results show that the poles geometry angle has the biggest influence on MRR (30.18%) followed by Finishing time, Gap, Magnetic poles velocity, Workpiece velocity, Current, Doze, and Grain size powder, respectively. Also the results show that the workpiece velocity has the biggest influence on the surface roughness (23.80%) followed by Doze, Gap, Current, poles geometry angle, Magnetic poles velocity, Grain size powder, and Finishing time, respectively. Regression results show that the decreasing of poles geometry angle from 30°to -30° leads to increasing MRR. While the decreasing of the workpiece velocity from (679 rpm) to (567 rpm) leads to increase the Roughness.

Full Text


Rafal M. Khalil

Somer M. Nacy

Deflection Analysis of an Elastic Single Link Robotic Manipulator.

Robotics manipulators with structural flexibility provide an attractive alternative to rigid robotics manipulators for many of the new and evolving applications in robotics. In certain applications their use is unavoidable. The increased complexity in modeling and control of such manipulators is offset by desirable performance enhancements in some respects. In this paperthe single- link flexible robotics manipulator was designed and implemented from Perspex and designed with 0.5 m length , 0.02 m width and with 0.004 m thickness with mass located at the tip. There are four subsystems; motion, control, accelerometer and gyro and a host computer subsystem. The work principle of single-link robotics manipulator is the base servomotor. It rotates a hub with the link on it and measure the  tip deflection. the deflection  was measured for three cases without load,  with 27.5 and with 59.4 gram at the end of the flexible link . During each of the above cases I rotated the base servo motor at an angular velocity equals to 90 deg./s using control card based on ATMEGA640 microcontroller. the deflection  was measured for the three cases and the deflection measured by MMA7631 Accelerometer and Gyro . This accelerometer  controlled by  using MEGA Arduino board . Then the dataI collected collected from accelerometer and plot it using MATLAB software and compared between theoretical results obtained from MATLAB program that based on Lagrange equation of motion and experimental results and we found the maximum deflection occurred when V=180 deg/sec and tip load=59.5 gram.

Full Text


Ahmed N. Al-Khazraji

Samir A. Amin

Saad M. Ali

Studying and Modeling the Effect of Graphite Powder Mixing Electrical Discharge Machining on the Main Process Characteristics.

This paper concerned with study the effect of a graphite micro powder mixed in the kerosene dielectric fluid during powder mixing electric discharge machining (PMEDM) of high carbon high chromium AISI D2 steel. The type of electrode (copper and graphite), the pulse current and the pulse-on time and mixing powder in kerosene dielectric fluid are taken as the process main input parameters. The material removal rate MRR, the tool wear ratio TWR and the work piece surface roughness (SR) are taken as output parameters to measure the process performance. The experiments are planned using response surface methodology (RSM) design procedure. Empirical models are developed for MRR, TWR and SR, using the analysis of variance (ANOVA).The best results for the productivity of the process (MRR) obtained when using the graphite electrodes, the pulse current (22 A), the pulse on duration (120 µs) and using the graphite powder mixing in kerosene dielectric reaches (82.84mm³/min). The result gives an improvement in material removal rate of (274%) with respect to the corresponding value obtained when copper electrodes with kerosene dielectric alone. The best results for the tool wear ratio (TWR) of the process obtained when using the copper electrodes, the pulse current (8 A), the pulse on duration (120 µs) and using the kerosene dielectric alone reaches (0.31 %). The use of graphite electrodes, the kerosene dielectric with 5g/l graphite powder mixing, the pulse current (8 A), the pulse on duration (40 µs) give the best surface roughness of a value (2.77 µm).This result yields an improvement in SR by (141%) with respect to the corresponding value obtained when using copper electrodes and the kerosene dielectric alone with the same other parameters and machining conditions.

Full Text


Jafar M. Hassan

Qussai J. Abdul-Ghafour

Mohammed F. Mohammed

Influences of the Twisted Strips Insertion on the Performance of Flat Plate Water Solar Collector.

In order to enhance the efficiency of flat plate solar water collectors without changing in its original shape and with low additional cost, twisted strips are inserted inside its riser pipes. Three flat plate collectors are used for test. Family of twisted strips are inserted inside each collector risers with different twisted ratios (TR=3,4,5). The collectors are connected in parallel mode (Z-Configuration) and are exposed to the same conditions (solar radiation and ambient temperature) .The experimental results show that, the highest heat transfer rate occurs at twisted ratio (3) .Consequently, for the same twisted ratio the daily efficiencies for the solar collector at different flow rate used (60,100 and 150) ℓ /hr. were 49 %, 57% and 63% respectively. Full Text


Awham M. Hameed

Entihaa G. Daway

Muaed F. Abd- Al Majed

Morphology and Mechanical Properties of (Epoxy/PVC) Blend.

In this research, the morphology and mechanical properties of (Epoxy/PVC) blend were investigated.  (EP/PVC) blend was prepared by manual mixing of epoxy resin with different weight ratios of (Poly vinyl chloride (PVC) after dissolving it in cyclohexanon). Five sheets of polymer blends in wt% included (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of PVC were prepared at room temperature. Tests were carried out to study some mechanical properties for these blends and compared with the properties of pure epoxy. The morphology of the prepared materials was examined to study the compatibility nature between the two polymers under work. It was found that the best ratio of addition is (20%) of PVC. This percentage gave the highest value of tensile strength compared with other percentages of mixing for (EP/PVC) blends. Full Text


Alalkawi H. J. M

Basim A. Sadkhan

Noor N. Abed

Laser Peening on Aluminum Alloy 7049 Using  Black Paint Surface Coating.

Black paint laser peening (bPLP) technique is currently applied for many engineering materials , especially for aluminum alloys due to high improvement in fatigue life and strength . Constant and variable   bending fatigue tests have been performed at RT and stress ratio R= -1 . The results of the present  work observed that the significance of the surface work hardening which generated high negative residual stresses in bPLP specimens .The fatigue life  improvement factor (FLIF)  for bPLP constant fatigue behavior was from 2.543 to 3.3 compared to untreated  fatigue and the increase in fatigue strength at 107 cycle was 21% . The bPLP cumulative fatigue life behavior was improved by 1.786 at L-H and 1.55 at H-L due to black paint coating .

Full Text


Nahla Abdulrahman Hussain

Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network modeling Using Optical System Simulator.

Due to the continuing demand for larger bandwidth, the optical transport becoming general in the access network. Using optical fiber technologies, the communications infrastructure becomes powerful, providing very high speeds to transfer a high capacity of data. Existing telecommunications infrastructures is currently widely used Passive Optical Network that apply Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and is awaited to play an important role in the future Internet supporting a large diversity of services and next generation networks. This paper presents a design of WDM-PON network, the simulation and analysis of transmission parameters in the Optisystem 7.0 environment for bidirectional traffic. The simulation shows the behavior of optical fiber links when the signal passes through all the components such as optical fiber, splitters, multiplexers then find a good quality of signal in all receivers. The system performance is presented through various parameters such as BER analyzer and the Eye Diagram Full Text


Shibly Ahmed AL-Samarraie


Alaq Sabah Badri


Mustafa H. Mishary

Integral Sliding Mode Control Design for Electronic Throttle Valve System.

One of the major components in an automobile engine is the throttle valve part. It is used to keep up with emissions and fuel efficiency low. Design a control system to the throttle valve is newly common requirement trend in automotive technology. The non-smoothness nonlinearity in throttle valve model are due to the friction model and the nonlinear spring, the uncertainty in system parameters and non-satisfying the matching condition are the main obstacles when designing a throttle plate controller In this work, the theory of the Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC) is utilized to design a robust controller for the Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV) system. From the first instant, the electronic throttle valve dynamics is represented by the nominal system model, this model is not affected by system parameters uncertainty and the non-smooth nonlinearities. This is a consequence of applying the integral sliding mode control. The ISMC consists of two part; the first is the nominal control which is used to control the nominal system, while the second is a discontinuous part which is used to eliminate the effects of the parameters uncertainty and the non-smooth nonlinearities from system model. These features for the ISMC are proved mathematically and demonstrated numerically via seven numerical simulations and for different desired trajectories.  The simulation results clarify that for different system parameters, the ETV behaves as a nominal system. This enables to freely and precisely select the system response characteristics and the time required for the throttle angle to reach the desired value. Moreover the ability to deal with the chattering problem is demonstrated through the worked  simulation tests, where the chattering is eliminated via approximating the signum function by arc tan function.

Full Text


Iman M.G. Alwan

Multi-Focus Image Fusion Based on Pixel Significance Using Counterlet Transform.

The objective of image fusion is to merge multiple sources of images together in such a way that the final representation contains higher amount of useful information than any input one.. In this paper, a weighted average fusion method is proposed. It depends on using weights that are extracted from source images using counterlet transform. The extraction method is done by making the approximated transformed coefficients equal to zero, then taking the inverse counterlet transform to get the details of the images to be fused. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been verified on several grey scale and color test  images, and compared with some present methods Full Text


Jabbar Hussein Mohmmed

Tensile and Compressive Properties of Kaolin Rienforced Epoxy.

The toughening of epoxy resins with the addition of organic or inorganic compounds is of great interest nowadays, considering their large scale of applications. In the present work, composites of epoxy are synthesized with kaolin particles having different particle sizes as reinforcement. Composites of epoxy with varying concentration (0 to 40 weight %) of kaolin was prepared by using hand lay method. The variation of mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, yield, tensile, and compressive strength with filler content was evaluated. The composite showed improved modulus of elasticity and compressive properties on addition of filler. In contrast, the tensile and yield strength of the composites decreases with rising kaolin content. It is also observed that mechanical properties increase with decrease in particle size in all cases.

Full Text
Copyright © 2016 Alkhwarizmi Engineering Journal. All rights reserved