Vol.5, No. 4 (2009)



Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,

Vol.5, No. 4 (2009)



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Iman Hahider Mahdi

Study the Axail Dispersion Model in Ion Exchange Column

A mathematical model is developed which predicates the performance of cylindrical ion exchange bed involving comparing of axial dispersion model for cation exchange column with different assumption, this model permits the performance to predicate the residence time within the bed with the variance, axial dispersion and Pecklet No. to indicated deviation from plug flow model.

Two type of systems are chosen for positive ions first with divalent ions (Ca+2) to exchange with resin of Na+1form used as application in  water softener units and second with monovalent ions (Na+1) to exchange with resin of H+1 form used as application in deionize water units  with two parameters effected in the operation of the two systems different flow rate and different feed concentration by their effect on axial dispersion  in each one where the system are compare from the performance which describe in term of breakthrough time other parameters (the time equivalent to usable capacity "tu" , time equivalent to equilibrium capacity "tt" and length of unused bed "HUNB") are calculated in the operation condition that with axial dispersion are very important in predicated the best condition to operation the cation exchange column as a softener and deionize units.    

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HayderMohammed Abdul-Hameed

Adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon

Heavy metal consider as major environmental pollutants. Many of industrial wastewater effluents contain a wide range of these heavy metals. The adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions from aqueous solution by activated carbon was studied. The results showed that maximum adsorption capacity occurred at 486.9×10-3 mg/kg for Pb2+ ion and 548.8×10-3 mg/kg for Cd2+ ion. The adsorption in a mixture of the metal ions had a balancing effect on the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon. The adsorption capacity of each metal ion was affected by the presence of other metal ions rather than its presence individually. The study showed the presence of other heavy metals attribute to the reduction in the activated carbon capacity, and the adsorption process was found to obeys the Freundlich isotherm for both ions.

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Malek M. Mohammed

Mazin A. H. Radhi

Ali Yasseen Nasir

Studying the Factors Effect on the Flowability of (ZnO – CuO/ Al2O3) Catalyst with Blending of Different Lubricants through Hopper

One of the most important problems in tablet process is to control the flow of the catalyst through the hopper; Controlling the flow can be done either by changing the size of particles or added the different lubricant (stearic acid, starch, graphite) or blending of different lubricants. The study showed that we can control (increase or decrease) on the flow of the catalyst through the hopper by blending different lubricants for the constant percentage. The flow increasing when particles size (0.6 mm) and then decrease with or without lubricants, no effect on flow when particles size lower than (0.2 mm) with use that lubricants, and good flow on (0.4 mm) when use stearic acid and starch.

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Mohammed B. AL-Bahri

 Safa A.AL-Naimi

Sundus H.Ahammed

Study the Effect of Hydrolysis Variables on the Production of Soya Proteins Hydrolysis

This study was conducted to determine the effects of concentration of hydrochloric acids, temperature, and time on the hydrolysis of soya proteins (defatted soya flour) by determining the value of total protein nitrogen  concentration, and amino nitrogen concentration of protein, peptides, and amino acids, and then calculated the hydrolysis rate of proteins.

The variables of the conditions of hydrolysis process was achieved in this study with the following range value of tests parameter:

  • Concentration of HCl solution ranged between 1-7 N,
  • Hydrolysis temperature ranged between 35-95 °C, and
  • The time of hydrolysis period ranged between 0.5-24 hr.

Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design.

  The practical study has shown the possibility of decreasing the negative effect of the acid on the biological characteristics of the protein; then affecting the possibility of using the product for biological purposes (for medical and microbiological laboratories) by:

·Decreasing the acid concentration used in the process of hydrolysis, firstly, and 

·Decreasing the temperature of the hydrolysis process, secondly, and then

·Increasing the period of the time of hydrolysis process, thirdly.

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Jabir S. Aziz, Osama A. Hussein

Design and Implementation of a Telemetry System for Environmental Applications

 The Environmental Data Acquisition Telemetry System is a versatile, flexible and economical means to accumulate data from multiple sensors at remote locations over an extended period of time; the data is normally transferred to the final destination and saved for further analysis.

This paper introduces the design and implementation of a simplified, economical and practical telemetry system to collect and transfer the environmental parameters (humidity, temperature, pressure etc.) from a remote location (Rural Area) to the processing and displaying unit.

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Mohammed H. Miry

Improve Akaike’s Information Criterion Estimation Based on Denoising of Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank

Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) is a popular method for estimation the number of sources impinging on an array of sensors, which is a problem of great interest in several applications. The performance of AIC degrades under low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). This paper is concerned with the development and application of quadrature mirror filters (QMF) for improving the performance of AIC. A new system is proposed to estimate the number of sources by applying AIC to the outputs of filter bank consisting quadrature mirror filters (QMF). The proposed system can estimate the number of sources under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

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Nabil H. Hadi,

Iqbal A. Rashed

Health Monitoring For Cantilever Crane Frame Using Residual Error Method

In the present research, a crane frame has been investigated by using finite element method. The damage is simulated by reducing the stiffness of assumed elements with ratios (10% and 20 %) in mid- span of the vertical column in crane frame. The cracked beam with a one-edge and non-propagating crack has been used. Six cases of damage are modeled for crane frame and by introducing cracked elements at different locations with ratio of depth of crack to the height of the beam (a/h) 0.1, 0.20. A FEM program coded in Matlab 6.5 was used to model the numerical simulation of the damage scenarios. The results showed a decreasing in the five natural frequencies from undamaged beam which means the indication of presence of the damage. The direct comparison gives an indication of the damage but the location of the damage, is not detected. The method based on changes in the dynamics characteristics of the beam structures are examined and evaluated for damage scenarios. The results of the analysis indicate that the residual error method performs well in detecting, locating and quantifying damage in single and multiple damage scenarios.

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Omar A. Athab,

Ahmed S. Hadi,

Sufyan T. Faraj

        Windows-BasedSpecial                              Applications Router

The design and implementation of an active router architecture that enables flexible network programmability based on so-called "user components" will be presents. This active router is designed to provide maximum flexibility for the development of future network functionality and services. The designed router concentrated mainly on the use of Windows Operating System, enhancing the Active Network Encapsulating Protocol (ANEP). Enhancing ANEP gains a service composition scheme which enables flexible programmability through integration of user components into the router's data path. Also an extended program that creates and then injects data packets into the network stack of the testing machine will be proposed, we will call this program the packet generator/injector (PGI). Finally, the success of the node architecture and its prototype implementation is evaluated by means of a few practical applications.


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Muna Khedier Abbas   Amin Dway

       Thamir  Ahmed             Salloum Abbas          

Hard Chromium Electroplating and Improvement the Properties by the Thermo Chemical Treatments (Solid of LowCarbon SteelCarburizing)


In this research the hard chromium electroplating process, which is one of the common methods of overlay coating was used, by using chromium acid as source of chromium and sulphuric acid as catalyst since the ratio between chromic acid and sulphuric acid is (100 : 1) consequently. Plating process was made by applying current of density (40 Amp / dm2) and the range of solution temperature was (50 – 55oC) with different time periods (1-5 hr). A  low carbon steel type (Ck15) was used as substrate for hard chromium electroplating. Solid carburization was carried out for hard chromium plating specimen at temperature (925oC) with time duration (2 hr) to be followed with quenching and tempering. The phase analysis was conducted by using X– ray diffraction. The examination results show that the chromium carbides in plating layer were (Cr23C6, Cr7C3). The microhardness of hard chromium plating specimen was measured, and the results show that the high hardness was about (907HV). After solid carburization the hardness values increase and the results show that the higher hardness for chromium plating layer on low carbon steel surface was (1276 HV).                                                      

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Imaad Sedeeq mohammed  

Salah Karem Juaad

Performance Estimation of Heat Exchanger Operates By Evaporative Cooling Manner

In this study the design and installation of evaporative air cooler was carried out using completely outdoor air (fresh air) according to two stage evaporative cooling principle. The laboratory equipment was installed by designing and manufacturing a cross flow plate heat exchanger, where aluminum plates used for this purpose with dimensions (50 × 30 × 40 cm). The surfaces of heat exchanger were covered by sawdust from wetted channels side, to increase the percentage of wetting these surfaces and hence improve the performance and efficiency of air cooler.

   An experimental study was carried out to estimate the performance of cooling system, where some of the dominant effective parameters were studied like air flow rate and flow rate and effect the static pressure drop of air and the heat transfer of performance .Air flow rate was ranged between (142.90 to 1461.50 m3 / hr) and water flow rate was varied from (144 L / hr) to (1050 L / hr).        The experimental results showed that the optimum flow rate of air prepared by the air cooler is (824.7 m3 / hr), As it to be seen from the study that treating the heat exchanger surfaces by sawdust improves the air cooler efficiency about (10 %), but in the other hand leads to increase the static pressure drop in proportion (21%) approximately, and hence

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