Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,
Vol.4, No. 2(2008)
Dr. Majid S. Radhaa
Dr. Khalid A. Sukkar
Hydrodynamics, Mass and Heat Transfer in Reactive Distillation
The ethyl acetate synthesis via heterogeneous reactive distillation is studied experimentally using ethanol and acetic acid. Three types of cation exchanging resins were used as catalysts: Zerolit 225, Zerolit 226 and Ambylite 400. Experiments were carried out in two units of the same dimensions. Each unit consisted of three sections: rectifying, reactive and stripping sections of heights (60+25+20) cm respectively and 2.5cm column diameter. The first unit (column-A-) was a fractionation type and the second unit (column-B-) was packed column. The packing type was hollow glass cylinders with 10 mm height, and 4, 5 mm inner and outer diameter respectively.
The experiments were carried out by using two operation modes. The semi-batch and continuous operation mode. In the first part of present investigation, the semi-batch mode was used to evaluate the catalyst type and to evaluate the performance of reactive distillation unit configuration (Fractionation and packed column). Results show that, the column-B- gave higher conversion rates than column-A-. This is attributed to the high surface area available for liquid vapour contact in packed type column, which leads to increasing mass transfer rates. On the other hand, Ambylite 400 catalyst showed higher activity for esterification reaction than other two types of catalysts.
Dr. Mohammed A. Atiya
Production of Protease Enzyme from Wheat Straw.
Protease enzyme production was studied and optimized as a first step to collect information about solid state fermenter) to produce protease enzyme. A local isolated Aspergillus niger was used for this study with constant spores feeding in every experiment at (105/g). Experiments carried out in conical flasks with (250 ml) containing (10 g) of wheat straw as a substrate with different conditions included temperature, pH, hydration ratio, and fermentation time, the results comprised by measuring protease activity (u). The results showed that the best activity can be obtained at (T = 32°C, t= 100 hrs, pH= 2.5 and hydration ratio is 1:3). On the other hand the results is courage to proceed to design a solid state protease fermenter from wheat straw.
Hayder Mohammed Abdul–Hameed
Two Domain Flow Method for Leachate Prediction Through Municipal Solid Waste Layersin Al–Amari Landfill Site.
Existing leachate models over–or underestimates leachate generation by up to three orders of magnitude. Practical experiments show that channeled flow in waste leads to rapid discharge of large leachate volumes and heterogeneous moisture distribution. In order to more accurately predict leachate generation, leachate models must be improved. To predict moisture movement through waste, the two–domain PREFLO, are tested. Experimental waste and leachate flow values are compared with model predictions. When calibrated with experimental parameters, the PREFLO provides estimates of breakthrough time. In the short term, field capacity has to be reduced to 0.12 and effective storage and hydraulic conductivity of the waste must be increased to 0.12 and effective storage and hydraulic conductivity of the wasted must be increased to 0.2 and 2.2 cm/s respectively. In the long term, a new modeling approach must be developed to adequately describe the moisture movement mechanisms.
Prof. Dr. Rafa Al-Suhaili Ass.Lecturer. Tariq J.Al-Mosewi
Time Series Analysis of Total Suspended Solids Concentrations in Euphrates River
in Al-Nasria Province
The monthly time series of the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) concentrations in Euphrates River at Nasria was analyzed as a time series. The data used for the analysis was the monthly series during (1977-2000).
The series was tested for nonhomogenity and found to be nonhomogeneous. A significant positive jump was observed after 1988. This nonhomogenity was removed using a method suggested by Yevichevich (7). The homogeneous series was then normalized using Box and Cox (2) transformation. The periodic component of the series was fitted using harmonic analyses, and removed from the series to obtain the dependent stochastic component. This component was then modeled using first order autoregressive model (Markovian chain). The above analysis was conducted using the data for the period (1977-1997), the remaining 3-years (1998-2000) of the observed data was left for the verification of the model. The observed model was used to generate future series. Those series were compared with the observed series using t-test. The comparison indicates the capability of the model to produce acceptable future data.
Dr. G. M. Alwan
pH-Control Problems of Wastewater Treatment Plants
Experimental investigations have been carried out to investigate the pH-control problems of industrial electroplating wastewater treatment plants. The accurate and sensitive PID control system could treat most problem and disturbances in the normal operation of the water treatment. However, conventional treatment was replaced by proprietary treatment agent called a QUASIL which was found to be more effective for a wide range of pH.
Dr. Hatem H. Al-Taee
Dr. Adil A. Al-Moosawy Mohammed A. Al-Shojary
Optimum Design of Stiffened Plate-Structure Subjected to Static Loading.
The field of structural optimization (optimal design) has grown rapidly over the past decades with many different optimization methods that could be used to produce a structure of minimum weight. This research deals with two aspects, in the first, a general numerical technique based on the finite element analysis and it suggests to investigate the preliminary behavior of metal stiffened plate under action of static load environment. The technique was included a finite element model of the structures using high- order isoparimetric plate elements to be used to create a certain models to obtain their optimum design. The models are characterized such that, each model is builded using different types of stiffener configuration. The second aspect was concerned with the investigation of the optimum design configuration of the structures. The optimization techniques used is called Morphing Evolutionary Structural Optimization (MESO). The Morphing ESO was examined in this research to be applied on stiffened plate structures.
Laith W. Ismail
Investigation of Load and Pressure Distribution on Wing with Wake Rollup for Low Speed Aircraft
The presented work shows a preliminary analytic method for estimation of load and pressure distributions on low speed wings with flow separation and wake rollup phenomena’s. A higher order vortex panel method is coupled with the numerical lifting line theory by means of iterative procedure including models of separation and wake rollup. The computer programs are written in FORTRAN which are stable and efficient.
The capability of the present method is investigated through a number of test cases with different types of wing sections (NACA 0012 and GA(W)-1) for different aspect ratios and angles of attack, the results include the lift and drag curves, lift and pressure distributions along the wing span taking into the consideration the effect of the angles of attack and the aspect ratios on the wake rollup. The pressure distribution on the wings shows that there is a region of constant pressure on the upper surface of the wings near the trailing edge in the middle of the wing, also there is a region of flow separation on the upper surface of the wings.
Qusai H. Jebur
Dynamic Analysis of Thin Composite Cylindrical and Spherical Shells.
In this work, an investigation for the dynamic analysis of thin composite cylindrical and spherical shells is presented. The analytical solution is based upon the higher order shear deformation theory of elastic shells from which the developed equations are derived to deal with orthotropic layers. This will cover the determination of the fundamental natural frequencies and mode shapes for simply supported composites cylindrical and spherical shells.
The analytical results obtained by using the derived equations were confirmed by the finite element technique using the well known Ansys package. The results have shown a good agreement with a maximum percentage of discrepancy, which gives a confidence of using this solution in prediction the dynamic analysis of cylindrical and spherical shells.
Yarub Omer Naji Al-Azzawi
Semi-Active Damping of Mechanical Vibrating Systems Using Variable Stiffness Actuator.
In this research, a variable stiffness actuator is proposed to enhance the damping of the mechanical vibrating system. The frequency response analysis of the vibrating system is dependant in order to analyze and synthesis this semi-active damping, where the suggested process is using active filter to estimate the present frequency of the vibration system, and this will limit the value of the stiffness of the vibrated system. Two active filter s are needed, low-pass-filter (LPF) to choose the higher stiffness of the actuator at small frequencies as well as more damping and high-pass-filter (HPF) to choose the lower stiffness of the actuator at high frequencies as well as more damping, and so the result will be good damping as a wholre.
Dr. Muna K Abbas
Dr.Abdul Hussain G. Al-Maliky
Ahlam Abid Ameer Alkhafajy
Simulation of Temperature Distribution in TIG Spot Welds of
(Al-Mg) Alloy Using Finite Element Method
This research concern to analyse and simulate the temperature distribution in the spot welding joints using tungsten arc welding shielded with inert gas (TIG Spot) for the aluminum-magnesium alloy type (5052-O).
The effect of and the quantity of the heat input that enter the weld zone has been investigated welding current, welding time and arc length on temperature distribution. The finite element method (by utilizing programme ANSYS 5.4) is presented the temperature distribution in a circular weld pool and the weld pool penetration (depth of welding) through the top sheet ,across the interface into the lower sheet forming a weld spot.