Vol.4, No. 4(2008) 


Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,


Vol.4, No. 4(2008)   




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Alaa K. Mohammed

 Hassanin Ali Hussen  

Safa Abid Al-Rassul 

Performance of Gas Induction in a Dual – Impeller Agitated Bioreactor    The rate of gas induction was measured in gas-inducing type mechanically agitated contactors provided with two impellers. A reactor of 0.5 m i.d. was used with a working capacity of 60 liters of liquid. Tap water was used as the liquid phase, and air was used as the gas phase. The bioreactor mixing system consists of two equal diameter stirrers; the top impeller is shrouded-disk/curved-blade turbine with six evacuated bending blades, while the bottom impeller was disk turbine. The impeller speed was varied in the range of 50 to 800 rpm. The ratio of impeller diameter to tank diameter (D/T) and the submergence (S) of upper impeller from the top were varied. The effects of clearance of lower impeller from the tank bottom (C2) and the impeller spacing (C3, distance between the two impellers) were also varied over a wide range.  Rate of gas induction (Q) was measured for all these combinations. It was found that the rate of gas induction increases with both decreasing in submergence and increasing in the stirrer diameter. While it decreases with both increasing the impeller spacing and the clearance from the bottom. 

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Mahmoud Omar Abdullah 

Khalid Farhod Al-Jiboury

 Bushra Yaseen 

Extraction of Phenol From Industrial Water Using Different Solvents The analysis and efficiency of phenol extraction from the industrial water using different solvents, were investigated. To our knowledge, the experimental information available in the literature for liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary mixtures containing the pair phenol-water is limited. Therefore the purpose of the present investigation is to generate the data for the water-phenol with different solvents to aid the correlation of liquid-liquid equilibria, including phase diagrams, distribution coefficients of phenol, tie-lines data and selectivity of the solvents for the aqueous phenol system.     The ternary equilibrium diagrams and tie-lines data for systems containing Water-Phenol-Benzene, Water-Phenol-Chloroform, Water-Phenol-iso-Butyl Acetate, Water-Phenol-Butanol, Water-Phenol-Ethyl Methyl Keton and Water-Phenol-Toluene, were determined at 303 K and atmospheric pressure.     The capacity and selectivity of these organic solvents in each of these systems were determined from the tie-lines data. The capacity of the isobutyle acetate was found to be the highest among the other solvents, and its selectivity was also the highest. Similar results also were obtained for the ethyl methyl keton but gave less capacity and selectivity as compared to the isobutyle acetate. It can be concluded that both isobutyle acetate and ethyl methyl keton are good solvents for extraction of phenol from industrial water.

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Rana A. Majed, Hanaa A. Al-Kaisy 

 Hind B. Al-Atrakchy 

Effect of Chloride Ions on the Corrosion Behavior of Al – Zn Alloy in NaOH Solution at Four Different Temperatures This research involves study effect of chloride ions in concentration range (0.01 – 0.50 mol.dm-3) on the corrosion behavior of Al-Zn alloy in basic media of 1x10-3 mol.dm-3 NaOH at pH=11 and four different temperatures in the range (298-313 K). Cathodic and anodic Tafel slopes (bc &ba) and transfer coefficients (αc & αa) were calculated and the results interprets according to the variation of the rate – determining steps. The results also indicate that the chloride ions are bonded chemically in the interface as an initial step of formation of different mixed oxohydroxy – and chloro complexes. Polarization resistance (Rp) is calculates and interprets the different polarization behavior because of addition of chloride ions to the basic media.

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Zanaib Y. Shnean  Effect of Grain and Calcinations Kaolin Additives on Some Mechanical and Physical properties on Low Density Polyethylene Composites In this work, a composite material was prepared from Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with different weight percent of grain and calcinations kaolin at temperature of (850oC) using single screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between (190-200oC). Some of mechanical and physical properties such as tensile strength, tensile strength at break, Young modulus, and elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fraction of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%). It was found that the addition of filler increases the modulus of elasticity, elongation at break, shore hardness and impact strength; on other hand, it decreases the tensile strength and tensile strength at a break.   Absorption test was carried out in water at different immersion times and different composite .The results of absorption show that it obeys Fick’s law and after the addition of kaolin the amount of absorption decrease. Calcinations kaolin filler produces better mechanical properties , than grain kaolin fillers.

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Manal H. Al-Hafidh 

 Raed G. Saihood 

Parametric Study of Mixed Convective Radiative Heat Transfer in an Inclined Annulus  The steady state laminar mixed convection and radiation through inclined rectangular duct with an interior circular tube is investigated numerically for a thermally and hydrodynamicaly fully developed flow. The two heat transfer mechanisms of convection and radiation are treated independently and simultaneously. The governing equations which used are continuity, momentum and energy equations. These equations are normalized and solved using the Vorticity-Stream function and the Body Fitted Coordinates (B.F.C) methods. The finite difference approach with the Line Successive Over-Relaxation (LSOR) method is used to obtain all the computational results. The (B.F.C) method is used to generate the grid of the problem. A computer program (Fortran 90) is built to calculate the steady state Nusselt number (Nu) for Aspect Ratio AR (0.55-1) and Geometry Ratio GR (0.1-0.9). The fluid Prandtl number is 0.7, Rayleigh number Ra = 400, Reynolds number Re = 100, Optical Thickness (0 ≤ t ≤ 10), Conduction- Radiation parameter (0 ≤ N ≤ 100) and Inclination angle λ = 45. For the range of parameters considered, results show that radiation enhance heat transfer. It is also indicated in the results that heat transfer from the surface of the circle exceeds that of the rectangular duct. Generally, Nu is increased with increasing GR, t and N but it decreased with AR increase. 

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Albert E. Yousif 

Muhammed Abdul Sattar 

The Effect of Additives on The Performance of Hydrostatic Thrust Bearings

The paper is concerned with, the behavior of the hydrostatic thrust bearings lubricated with liquid-solid lubricants using Einstein viscosity formula, and taking into account the centrifugal force resulting from high speed.  Also studied is the effect of the bearing dimensions on the pressure, flow rate, load capacity, shear stress, power consumption and stiffness.

The theoretical results show an increase in load capacity by (8.3%) in the presence of solid graphite particles with concentration of (16%) by weight as compared with pure oil, with increasing shear stress.  .

In general the performance of hydrostatic thrust bearings improve for load carrying capacity, volume flow rate, pumping power subjected to centrifugal parameter (S), recess position (r1), film thickness ratio (b), particle concentration (l).


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Imad A. Hussain, Hameed D. Lafta 

Rafa'a D. Hussain 

Thermo Elasto-Plastic Analysis of Rotating Axisymmetrical Bodies Using Modified Von-Mises Yield Criterion In the present work, the behavior of thick-walled cylinder of elasto-plastic material (polymeric material) has been studied analytically. The study is based on modified Von-Mises yield criterion (for non metallic material). The equations of stress distribution are obtained for the cylinder under general cases of elastic expansion, plastic initiation and elastic-plastic expansion.     A computer program is developed for evaluating the stress distribution. The solution is carried out for worst boundary conditions when the cylinder is subjected to the combination of pressure load, inertia load, and temperature gradient.     The results are presented graphically in terms of dimensionless stresses and radius ratio. They indicate that the thermal and rotational loads are greatly influencing the stress distribution and the initiation of plastic zone, as well as the spreading out of the plastic zone. Moreover, it was found that the critical values of loads required for starting plastic deformation are determined by the amount of the applied load and the type of loading conditions, and it is found that the variation of  stresses are greatly influenced by increasing of the temperature gradient at constant pressure and inertial loads than other increases in  loading conditions.

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Ahmed K. Hassan  Peak to Average Power Ratio Reduction of OFDM Signals Using Clipping and Iterative processing  Methods     One of the serious problems in any wireless communication system using multi carrier modulation technique like Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is its Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR).It limits the transmission power due to the limitation of dynamic range of Analog to Digital Converter and Digital to Analog Converter (ADC/DAC) and power amplifiers at the transmitter, which in turn sets the limit over maximum achievable rate.     This issue is especially important for mobile terminals to sustain longer battery life time. Therefore reducing PAPR can be regarded as an important issue to realize efficient and affordable mobile communication services.     This paper presents an efficient PAPR reduction method for OFDM signal. This method is based on clipping and iterative processing. Iterative processing is performed to limit PAPR in time domain but the subtraction process of the peak that over PAPR threshold with the original signal is done in frequency domain, not in time like usual clipping technique. The results of this method is capable of reducing the PAPR significantly with minimum bit error rate (BER) degradation. 

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Haitham H. Al-Da'ami,

 Ahmed A. Al-Rajihy

 Essam Z. Fadhel 

Large Angle Bending Behavior of Curved Members Using The Method of Characteristics This paper deals with the nonlinear large-angle bending dynamic analysis of curved beams which investigated by modeling wave’s transmission along curved members. The approach depends on the wave propagation in one-dimensional structural element using the method of characteristics. The method of characteristics (MOC) is found to be a suitable method for idealizing the wave propagation inside structural systems. Timoshenko’s beam theory, which includes transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia effects, is adopted in the analysis. Only geometrical non-linearity is considered in this study and the material is assumed to be linearly elastic. Different boundary conditions and loading cases are examined. From the results obtained, it is found that the geometrical shape, boundary conditions, material properties of the members as well as the load type and direction have considerable effects on the response of the member.

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Alaa Hassan Ali  Study The Influence of Forming Conditions Like Deformation Speed on Void Closure in Open Die Forging     This paper presents an investigation to the effect of the forming speed on healing voids that inhabit at various size in an ingot. The study was performed by using finite element method with bilinear isotropic material option, circular type voids were considered. The closure index was able to predict the minimum press force necessary to consolidate voids and the reduction. The simulation was carried out, on circular cross-section lead specials containing a central void of different size. At a time with a flat die, different ratio of inside to outside radius was taken with different speed to find the best result of void closure.

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Sawsan H. Muhammed   

  Karem Khalaf Hadi

Effect of Flaring Angle of Transition Structure On the Scouring of outlet structure  The transition structure is considered as the most important hydraulic structure controlling the w/s transtion, morever it decrease the scouring of outlet structure.  seven experiment samples for transition structure was used in this research at different angles ( 10° - 90° ).        It was shown that froud number has a clear effect on the depth of the scouring, morever the high discharge rates cause an increase of the ratio between the length of the scour and its depth.        In order to select the best flaring angle it was shown that the angle of 40° has the most discharge rate, least structure length and least angle scour depth, with the firmly of the other factors affecting the scouring of outlet structure.

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