Vol.1, No. 1(2005)


Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,

Vol.1, No. 1(2005)   


No. Author Name Title Abstract Full Text


Ahmed Sabah Abdul Ameer Al-Araji

Neuro-Self Tuning Adaptive Controller

for Non-Linear Dynamical Systems

In this paper, a self-tuning adaptive neural controller strategy for unknown nonlinear system is presented. The system considered is described by an unknown NARMA-L2 model and a feedforward neural network is used to learn the model with two stages. The first stage is learned off-line with two configuration serial-parallel model & parallel model to ensure that model output is equal to actual output of the system & to find the jacobain of the system. Which appears to be of critical importance parameter as it is used for the feedback controller and the second stage is learned on-line to modify the weights of the model in order to control the variable parameters that will occur to the system. A back propagation neural network is applied to learn the control structure for self-tuning PID type neuro-controller. Where the neural network is used to minimize the error function by adjusting the PID gains. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID scheme can deal with a large unknown nonlinearity.

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Azad  R. Kareem

     A New Structure for Cascaded       Single-Stage Distributed

                      Amplifier Using Proposed Active                   Inductor Loads

A modification to cascaded single-stage distributed amplifier (CSSDA) design by using active inductor is proposed. This modification is shown to render the amplifier suitable for high gain operation in small on-chip area. Microwave office program simulation of the Novel design approach shows that it has performance compatible with the conventional distributed amplifiers but with smaller area. The CSSDA is suitable for optical and satellite communication systems.

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W. A. Mahmoud Z. J. M. Saleh  N. K. Wafi

The Determination of Critical-Sampling Scheme of Preprocessing for

Multiwavelets Decomposition as 1st and 2nd Orders of Approximations.

One of the important differences between multiwavelets and scalar wavelets is that each channel in the filter bank has a vector-valued input and a vector-valued output. A scalar-valued input signal must somehow be converted into a suitable vector-valued signal. This conversion is called preprocessing. Preprocessing is a mapping process which is done by a prefilter. A postfilter just does the opposite.

The most obvious way to get two input rows from a given signal is to repeat the signal. Two rows go into the multifilter bank. This procedure is called “Repeated Row” which introduces oversampling of the data by a factor of 2.

 For data compression, where one is trying to find compact transform representations for a dataset, it is imperative to find critically sampled multiwavelet transforms schemes which this paper focuses on finding a simple and easy to follow algorithm for its computation.

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Tarik Zeyad

                         Human Face Recognition Using                                        GABOR Filter And Self                                                Organizin Different Maps                                Neural   Networks

This work implements the face recognition system based on two stages, the first stage is feature extraction stage and the second stage is the classification stage. The feature extraction stage consists of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) in a hierarchical format in conjunction with Gabor Filters and local image sampling. Different types of SOM’s were used and a comparison between the results from these SOM’s was given.

The next stage is the classification stage, and consists of self-organizing map neural network; the goal of this stage is to find the similar image to the input image. The proposal method algorithm implemented by using C++ packages, this work is successful classifier for a face database consist of 20 people with six images for each person and a measure of the time differences between the methods is given.

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Suha Mohammed Hadi

 A New Approach for  DesigningMulti Information Management System Using XMLTechnology


XML is being incorporated into the foundation of E-business data applications. This paper addresses the problem of the freeform information that stored in any organization and how XML with using this new approach will make the operation of the search very efficient and time consuming. This paper introduces new solution and methodology that has been developed to capture and manage such unstructured freeform information (multi information) depending on the use of XML schema technologies, neural network idea and object oriented relational database, in order to provide a practical solution for efficiently management multi freeform information system.

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Tarik Zeyad

                            Speech Signal Compression Using                                   Wavelet AndLinear Predictive                                              Coding                      


A new algorithm is proposed to compress speech signals using wavelet transform and linear predictive coding. Signal compression based on the concept of selecting a small number of approximation coefficients after they are compressed by the wavelet decomposition (Haar and db4) at a suitable chosen level and ignored details coefficients, and then approximation coefficients are windowed by a rectangular window and fed to the linear predictor. Levinson Durbin algorithm is used to compute LP coefficients, reflection coefficients and predictor error. The compress files contain LP coefficients and previous sample. These files are very small in size compared to the size of the original signals. Compression ratio is calculated from the size of the compressed signal relative to the size of the uncompressed signal. The proposed algorithms where fulfilled with the use of Matlab package.


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Sadiq Jaffar Abass

Stress Analysis of the Hip Bone

The bony pelvis has a major role in weight transmission to the lower limbs. The complexities of its geometric form, material properties, and loading conditions render it an open subject to biomechanical analysis.

 The present study deals with area measurement, and three-dimensional finite element analysis of the hip bone to investigate magnitudes, load direction, and stress distribution under physiological loading conditions.

 The surface areas of the auricular surface, lunate surface, and symphysis pubis were measured in (35) adult hip bones. A solid model was translated into ANSYS parametric design language to be analyzed by finite element analysis method under different loading conditions.

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Issam M.Ali , Hani A.Jasim

An Experimental Study of Capillary Tubes BehaviorWith  R-12 and R-134a

Experimental work has been performed on three capillary tubes of different lengths and diameters using R-12 and R-134a. The test also studies the effect of discharge and speed of evaporator fan. The results clearly showed that refrigerant type and discharge significantly influence the temperature drop across the capillary tube. While the speed of evaporator fan has small effect. Experimental results showed that the temperature gradient for the two refrigerants are the same, but after approximatly one meter the temperature gradient of R-134a  is steeper than R-12.

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Yasin K. Salman  Hussein

Ahmed Mohammed

The Effect of Restriction Shape On LAMINAR NaturalConvection  Heat Transfer in A Vertical Circular Tube

Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated for laminar air flow in a vertical circular tube by using the boundary condition of constant wall heat flux in the ranges of (RaL) from (1.1*109) to (4.7*109). The experimental set-up was designed for determining the effect of different types of restrictions placed at entry of heated tube in bottom position, on the surface temperature distribution and on the local and average heat transfer coefficients. The apparatus was made with an electrically heated cylinder of a length (900mm) and diameter (30mm). The entry restrictions were included a circular tube of same diameter as the heated cylinder but with lengths of (60cm, 120cm), sharp-edge and bell-mouth. The surface temperature along the cylinder surface for same heat flux would be higher values for circular restriction with length of (120cm) and would be smaller values for bell-mouth restriction. The results show that the local Nusselt number (Nux) and average Nusselt number are higher for bell-mouth restriction and smaller values for (120cm) restriction. For all entry shape restrictions, the results show that the Nusselt number values increases as the heat flux increases. From the present work an empirical correlations were obtained in a form of (Log ) versus (Log ) for each case investigated and obtained a general correlation for all cases which reveals the effect of restriction existence on the natural convection heat transfer process in a vertical circular tube.

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Malek Mostafa Mohammed

 Zyad Rafa'a Zair

The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead

Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene

In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE) was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE) locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP) or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator.

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Zainab Ziad Ismail

Removal of Oil From Wastewater UsingWalunt-Shell


The ability of pulverized walnut-shell to remove oil from aqueous solutions has been studied. It involves two-phase process which consists of using walnut-shell as a filtering bed for the accumulation and adsorption of oil onto its surface. Up to 96% oil removal from synthetic wastewater samples was achieved while tests results showed that 75% of oil can be removed from the actual wastewater discharged from Al- Duara refinery in the south of Baghdad.

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12 Dr. Ammar J. Mohammed Kinetic and Mechanism of Oxidation of Oxalic Acid by Cerium (IV) Kinetic and mechanism studies of the oxidation of oxalic acid by Cerium sulphate have been carried out in acid medium sulphuric acid. The uv- vis. Spectrophotometric technique was used to follow up the reaction and the selected wavelength to be followed was 320 nm. The kinetic study showed that the order of reaction is first order in Ce(IV) and fractional in oxalic acid. The effect of using different concentration of sulphuric acid on the rate of the reaction has been studied a and it was found that the rate decreased with increasing the acid concentration. Classical organic tests was used to identify the product of the oxidation reaction, the product was just bubbles of CO2.  Full Text




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