Vol.12, No. 3 (2016)


Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,


Vol.12, No. 3 (2016)



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The uptake of Cd(II) ions from simulated wastewater onto olive pips was modeled using artificial neural network (ANN) which consisted of three layers. Based on 112 batch experiments, the effect of contact time (10-240 min), initial pH (2-6), initial concentration (25-250 mg/l), biosorbent dosage (0.05-2 g/100 ml), agitation speed (0-250 rpm) and temperature (20-60ºC) were studied. The maximum uptake (=92 %) of Cd(II) was achieved at optimum parameters of 60 min, 6, 50 mg/l, 1 g/100 ml, 250 rpm and 25ºC respectively


Modeling the removal of Cadmium Ions from Aqueous Solutions onto Olive Pips Using Neural Network Technique.


Ayad A.H. Faisal


 Zahraa Saud Nassir


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The application of ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) processes in the handling of raw produced water have been investigated in the present study. Experiments of both ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes are performed ina laboratory unit, which is operated in a cross-flow pattern. Various types of hollow fiber membranes were utilized inthis study such as poly vinyl chloride (PVC) UF membrane, two different polyether sulfone (PES) NF membranes, andpoly phenyl sulfone PPSU NF membrane. It was found that the turbidity of the treated water is higher than 95 % by using UF and NF membranes.

Produced Water Treatment Using Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Membranes


Bashir Y. Sherhan

  Areej D. Abbas

 Qusay F. Alsalhy

Thamera K. Abbas

 Yusra M. Mahdi

 Noura A. Abdul Kareem

Alaa A. Rashad

 Zahraa W. Rashad

 Aiden A. Shawkat


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In this study, the behavior of square helical piles models (5×5) mm2 embedded in expansive soil bed overlaying a layer of sandy soil was investigated. The sand layer 200mm thickness was compacted into four sub layers in a steel container with diameter 400mm in size. Sandy soil layer was compacted into two relative densities 40% and 80%. The bed of expansive soil 300mm thickness was compacted into six sub layers on sandy soil layer. Model tests are performed with helical pile length 350mm, 400mm and 450mm and with helix diameter 15mm and 20mm. Also, one helix and double helix were used for these piles. Water was allowed to seep from bottom of sandy soil to reach surface of expansive soil through four sand drains around helical pile. This study revealed that the upward movement of helical piles decreases with increasing depth of embedment in the sandy layer, helix diameter and number of helix. The increase in these parameters provides anchorage against uplifting. Helical piles embedded in sandy soil of relative density (40%) have uplift movement more than helical piles of relative density (80%).


Helical Piles Embedded in Expansive Soil Overlaying Sandy Soil


Bushra Suhail  Al-Busoda Hassan Obaid Abbase


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In the present investigation, bed porosity and solid holdup in viscous three-phase inverse fluidized bed (TPIFB) are determined for aqueous solutions of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) system using polyethylene and polypropylene as  a particles with low-density and diameter (5 mm) in a (9.2 cm) inner diameter with height (200 cm) of vertical perspex column. The effectiveness of gas velocity Ug , liquid velocity UL, liquid viscosity μL, and particle density ρs on bed porosity BP and solid holdups εg were determined. The bed porosity increases with "increasing gas velocity", "liquid velocity", and "liquid viscosity". Solid holdup decreases with increasing gas, liquid velocities and liquid viscosity. Solid holdup with "low density particles" shows a higher numerical quantity "than that in the beds" with "high density". Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation of "artificial neural network (ANNs)" was utilized to predict the bed porosity and solid holdup. The expected values are in an excellent relationship with the experimental values, where the advanced model is high-fidelity and own a large capacity to predict bed porosity and solid holdup

Experimental and Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network of Bed Porosity and Solid Holdup in Viscous 3-Phase Inverse Fluidization


Amer A. Abdulrahman


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Iraqi conventional gasoline characterized by its low octane number not exceed 82 and high lead and sulfur content. In this paper tri-component or ternary, blends of gasoline, ethanol, and methanol presented as an alternative fuel for Iraqi conventional gasoline. The study conducted by using GEM blend that equals E85 blend in octane rating. The used GEM selected from Turner, 2010 collection. G37 E20 M43 (37% gasoline + 20% ethanol+ 43% methanol) was chosen as GEM in present study. This blend used in multi-cylinder Mercedes engine, and the engine performance, and emitted emissions compared with that produced by a gasoline engine

Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol (GEM) Ternary Blends utilization as an Alternative to Conventional Iraqi Gasoline to Suppress Emitted Sulfur and Lead Components to Environment


Miqdam Tariq Chaichan


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In this research, damping properties for composite materials were evaluated using logarithmic decrement method to study the effect of reinforcements on the damping ratio of the epoxy matrix. Three stages of composites were prepared in this research. The first stage included preparing binary blends of epoxy (EP) and different weight percentages of polysulfide rubber (PSR) (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%). It was found that the weight percentage 5% of polysulfide was the best percentage, which gives the best mechanical properties for the blend matrix. The advantage of this blend matrix is that; it mediates between the brittle properties of epoxy and the flexible properties of a blend matrix with the highest percentage of PSR. The second stage included reinforcing the best blend matrix of epoxy-polysulfide (the blend matrix with the best percentage of polysulfide resulted from the previous stage), by different volume percentages of short fibers (Carbon& Glass) separately and randomly

Study the Effect of Different Reinforcements on the Damping Properties of the Polymer Matrix Composite


Ibtihal Abed Al-Razaq

Mustafa Ziyara Shamukh


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In this work an experimental simulation is made to predict the performance of steady-state natural heat convection along heated finned vertical base plate to ambient air with different inclination angles and configurations of fin array. Two types of fin arrays namely vertical fins array and V-fins array on heated vertical base plate are used with different heights and spaces. The influence of inclination angle of the plate , configuration of fins array and fin geometrical parameters such as fin height and fin spacing on the temperature distribution, base convection heat transfer coefficient and average Nusselt number have been plotted and discussed. The experimental data are correlated to a formula between average Nusselt number versus Rayleigh number for vertical plate and vertical fins array

Experimental Simulation of Natural Heat Convection from Finned Vertical Plate with Different Inclinations


Saad Najeeb Shehab


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Fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important material for structural application. The diversified application of FRP composite has taken center of attraction for interdisciplinary research. However, improvements on mechanical properties of this class of materials are still under research for different applications. In this paper we have modified the epoxy matrix by Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 nano particles in glass fiber/epoxy composite to improve the mechanical and physical properties. The composites are fabricated by hand lay-up method. It is observed that mechanical properties like flexural strength, hardness are more in case of SiO2 modified epoxy composite compare to other nano modifiers, were physical properties like density, water absorption are more in case of TiO2 modified epoxy composite. This may be because of smaller particle size of silica compare to others 


Effect of Nano Powder on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite


Aseel Basim Abdul-Hussein

Fadhel Abbas Hashim

 Tamara Raad Kadhim


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In this work, a test room was built in Baghdad city, with (2*1.5*1.5) m3  in dimensions, while the solar chimneys (SC) were designed with aspect ratio (ar) bigger than 12. Test room was supplied by many solar collectors; vertical single side of air pass with ar equals 25, and tilted 45o double side of air passes with ar equals 50 for each pass, both collectors consist of flat thermal energy storage box collector (TESB) that covered by transparent clear acrylic sheet, third type of collector is array of evacuated tubular collectors with thermosyphon in 45o instelled  in the bottom of TESB of vertical SC. The TESB was made from metallic iron sheets as a shell and fuelled by paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM). The PCM supported by copper foam matrix (CFM) to enhance thermal conductivity of wax. When heat is released from TESB to the air, a buoyancy force will be generated in chimney gaps

Experimental Study Using the Passive Solar Chimney for Evaporative Cooling With PCM and CFM as a Thermal Energy Storage


Talib K. Murtadha

 Hussien M. Salih

 Ali D. Salman


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This work presents an experimental study of heat transfer and flow of distilled water and metal oxide nanofluid Fe3O4-distilled water at concentrations of (φ = 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 %) by volume in a horizontal pipe with constant magnetic field. All the tests are carried out with Reynolds number range (2900-9820) and uniform heat flux (11262-19562 W/m2). The results show that, the nanofluid concentration and magnetic intensity increase, the Nusselt number increases. The maximum enhancement in Nusselt number with magnetic nanofluid is (5.4 %, 26.4 %, 42.7 %) for volume concentration (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 %) respectively. The enhancement is maximized with magnetic intensity (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 tesla) respectively to (43.9, 44.3, 46 %) with volume concentration (0.9 %). The heat transfer enhancement decreases with the increasing of Reynold number with using magnets. The friction factor increases with nano volume concentration increase and the intensity of magnet and decreases with increase of Reynold number


The Effect of Magnetic Field With Nanofluid on Heat Transfer in A Horizontal Pipe


Abdulhassan A. Karamallah

Laith Jaafer Habeeb

Ali Habeeb Asker


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An experimental and theoretical study has been done to investigate the thermal performance of different types of air solar collectors, In this work air solar collector with a dimensions of (120 cm x90 cm x12 cm) , was tested under climate condition of  Baghdad city with a (43° tilt angel)  by using  the absorber plate (1.45 mm thickness, 115 cm height x 84 cm width), which was manufactured from iron painted with a black matt.The experimental test deals with five types of absorber:-Conventional smooth flat plate absorber , Finned absorber , Corrugated absorber plate, Iron wire mesh on absorber And matrix of porous media  on absorber .The hourly and average efficiency of the collectors were investigated for three values of mass flow rates (0.016 kg/s to 0.027 kg/s) for each type of collector and then the porosity for the last collector type was tested by changing the porosity of porous media. A typical air solar collector has been studied Theoretically to build a standard software for testing any type of air solar collectors with local weather data 


Experimental and Theoretical Study for Performance Enhancement of Air Solar Collectors by Using Different Absorbers

Ahmed A. Mohammad Saleh

 Taher Abbas Rashid


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The research aims to investigate the effects of GMAW or MIG welding process on the mechanical properties of dissimilar aluminum alloys 2024-T351 and AA 6061- T651. A series of experimental techniques have been conducted to evaluate mechanical properties of the alloys, by carrying out hardness, tensile and bending tests for welded and un-welded specimens. Metal inert gas (MIG) has been carried out on sheet metal using ER- 4043(AlSi5) as a filler metal and argon as shielded gas. The welded joints were tested by X-ray radiography and Faulty pieces were excluded.Welding joints without defects are subjected to heat treatment including heating the joints in furnace to 170 °C for half an hour then air cooling to relief welding stress. Tensile test was implemented for all specimens which prepared in the dimensions according to ASTM 17500 by using Testing machine smart series with preload value 100 kN. Vickers hardness test and microstructure examination were made, the last test was bending test which implemented on the welded and un welded specimens which machined into standard test specimen  dimensions



Mechanical Properties of MIG Joints for Dissimilar Aluminum (2024-T351 and 6061-T651Alloys)s


Nawres Jabar Nasser




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