Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal,
Vol.13, No. 1 (2017)
Experimental Study of the Effect of Fuel Type on the Emitted Emissions from SIE at Idle Period
Miqdam T. Chaichan Khalil I Abaas Bashar A Mohammed
The present study investigated the impact of fuel kind on the emitted emissions at the idling period. Three types of available fuels in Iraq were tested. The tests conducted on ordinary gasoline with an octane number of 82, premium gasoline with an octane number of 92, and M20 (consist of 20% methanol and 80% regular gasoline). The 2 liters Mercedes-Benz engine was used in the experiments.The results showed that engine operation at idle speed emits high levels of CO, CO2, HC, NOx and noise. The produced emission levels depend highly on fuel type. The premium gasoline (ON=92) represents the lower emissions level except for noise at all idling speed. Adding methanol to ordinary gasoline (ON=82) showed high levels of emitted CO, CO2, HC compared with premium gasoline. Emitted NOx emissions were near zero levels for most of the idle speeds for the tested fuels.
Keywords: Idle period, engine speed, M20, NOx, CO, HC, noise.
Solving the Inverse Kinematic Equations of Elastic Robot Arm Utilizing Neural Network
Hussein M. Al-Khafaji Muhsin J. Jweeg
The inverse kinematic equation for a robot is very important to the control robot’s motion and position. The solving of this equation is complex for the rigid robot due to the dependency of this equation on the joint configuration and structure of robot link. In light robot arms, where the flexibility exists, the solving of this problem is more complicated than the rigid link robot because the deformation variables (elongation and bending) are present in the forward kinematic equation. The finding of an inverse kinematic equation needs to obtain the relation between the joint angles and both of the end-effector position and deformations variables. In this work, a neural network has been proposed to solve the problem of inverse kinematic equation. To feed the neural network, experimental data were taken from an elastic robot arm for training the network, these data presented by joint angles, deformation variables and end-effector positions. The results of network training showed a good fit between the output results of the neural network and the targets data. In addition, this method for finding the inverse of kinematic equation proved its effectiveness and validation when applying the results of neural network practically in the robot’s operating software for controlling the real light robot’s position.
Keywords: Elastic robot, forward and inverse kinematic equation of elastic robot. Neural networks.
Improvement of Dynamic Buckling Behavior of Intermediate Aluminized Stainless Steel Columns
Ahmed Naif Al-Khazraji Samir Ali Al-Rabii Hameed Shamkhi Al-Khazaali
This paper experimentally investigated the dynamic buckling behavior of AISI 303 stainless steel aluminized and as received intermediate columns. Twenty seven specimens without aluminizing (type 1) and 75 specimens with hot-dip aluminizing at different aluminizing conditions of dipping temperature and dipping time (type 2), were tested under dynamic compression loading (compression and torsion), dynamic bending loading (bending and torsion), and under dynamic combined loading (compression, bending, and torsion) by using a rotating buckling test machine. The experimental results werecompared with tangent modulus theory, reduced modulus theory, and Perry Robertson interaction formula. Reduced modulus was formulated to circular cross-section for the specimens of type (1).The experimental results obtained showed an advantageous influence of hot-dip aluminizing treatment on the dynamic buckling behavior of AISI 303 stainless steel intermediate columns. The improvements based on the average value of critical stress were19.4 % for intermediate columns type (2) compared with columns type (1) under dynamic compression loading, 8.7 % for intermediate columns type (2) compared with columns type (1) under dynamic bending loading, and 16.5 % for intermediate columns type (2) compared with columns type (1) under dynamic combined loading.
Keywords: Dynamic buckling, hot-dip Aluminizing, intermediate columns, AISI 303 stainless steel.
Experimental Study to the Effect of Natural Particles Added to Unsaturated Polyester Resin of a Polymer Matrix Composite
Orhan S. Abdullah
Experimental investigations had been done in this study to demonstrate the effect of natural particles used as a reinforcement material to unsaturated polyester resin. The tensile test and water absorption were investigated according to (ASTM D638) and (ASTM D570), respectively. The influence of sunflower husk and pomegranate husk particles, used as a reinforcement material, on the tensile strength, Young's modulus and water absorption with different weight fraction (3%, 7% and 10%) and particle grain size (50µm, 100 µm and 150 µm), has been investigated. The water absorption of polymer composites was studied by measuring the specimen weight before and after immersion in water for one hundred days. In the experiments of tensile test, all specimens loading was performed with (50KN) operating at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. It is observed that the addition of sunflower husk up to 10% and pomegranate husk particles up to 7% as reinforcement materials to polyester resin, leads to increase the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composite material prepared and the use of sunflower husk as a reinforcement material increased the tensile strength, Young's modulus and water absorption were better than pomegranate husk at the same percentage of addition. The decrease in reinforcement material grain size led to increase the tensile strength, Young's modulus and water absorption. Therefore, all the best result seen in composites containing reinforcement material with (50µm). Finally, the best result obtained in tensile strength, Young's modulus and water absorption were with the addition of 10% sunflower husk as a reinforcement material to polyester resin.
Keywords: Polyester, Polymer composite; Pomegranate husk, Sunflower husk.
Active Vibration Suppression of Smart Cantilever Beam with Sliding Mode Observer Using Two Piezoelectric Patches
Shibly A. AL-Samarraie Mohsin N. Hamzah Imad A. Abdulsahib
This paper presents a vibration suppression control design of cantilever beam using two piezoelectric patches. One patch was used as an actuator element, while the other was used as a sensor. The controller design was designed via the balance realization reduction method to elect the reduced order model that is most controllable and observable. the sliding mode observer was designed to estimate six states from the reduced order model but three states are only used in the control law. Estimating a number of states larger than that used is in order to increase the estimation accuracy. Moreover, the state estimation error is proved bounded. An optimal LQR controller is designed then using the estimated states with the sliding mode observer, to suppress the vibration of a smart cantilever beam via the piezoelectric elements. The control spillover problem was avoided, by deriving an avoidance condition, to ensure the asymptotic stability for the proposed vibration control design. The numerical simulations were achieved to test the vibration attenuation ability of the proposed optimal control. For 15 mm initial tip displacement, the piezoelectric actuator found able to reduce the tip displacement to about 0.1 mm after 4s, while it was 1.5 mm in the open loop case. The current experimental results showed a good performance of the proposed LQR control law and the sliding mode observer, as well a good agreement with theoretical results.
Keywords: Smart materials, Active vibration, Piezoelectric, Sliding mode observer, Model reduction, LQR controller.
corrosion Behavior of Nanocomposite Al-9 wt% Si Alloy Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes
Mustafa K. Ismeal Kharia S. Hassan Hussian A. Hussian
An effort is made to study the effect of composite nanocoating using aluminum-9%wt silicon alloys reinforced with different percentage (0.5,1,2,4)wt.% of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using plasma spraying. The effect of this composite on corrosion behavior for AA6061-T6 by extrapolation Tafel test in sea water 3.5wt% NaCl was invested. Many specimens where prepared from AA6061-T6 by the dimension (15x15x3)mm as this first set up and other steps include coating process, X-ray diffraction and SEM examination .The results show the CNTs increase the corrosion rate of the nanocomposite coatings with increasing the weight percentage of CNTs within the Al-Si matrix. Al-9wt%Si coating layer itself has less corrosion rate if compared with both nanocomposite coating and the substrate of AA6061-T6.
Keywords: Aluminum-9%Silicon, AA6061-T6, nanocomposite, CNTs, corrosion, plasma spraying.
Mechanical Properties Investigation of Composite Material Under Different Parameters Variations
Farag M. Mohammed
The main objective of this research is to design and select a composite plate to be used in fabricating wing skins of light unman air vehicle (UAV). The mechanical properties, weight and cost are the basis criteria of this selection. The fiber volume fraction, fillers and type of fiber with three levels for each were considered to optimize the composite plate selection. Finite element method was used to investigate the stress distribution on the wing at cruise flight condition in addition to estimate the maximum stress. An experiments plan has been designed to get the data on the basis of Taguchi technique. The most effective parameters at the process to be find out by employing L9 (33) orthogonal array, signal to noise ratio (S/N), main effect and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that, the experimental and the predicted results are very close. It was found that the type of fiber is the most effective parameter on the plate selection, followed by filler content and then the fiber volume fraction. The best parameters combinations are ((E-glass woven roving + unidirectional carbon) fiber, 7.5% graphite filler and 30% fiber volume fraction). This combination provides good mechanical properties, high safety factor, acceptable cost, and offers weight savings on average by 40% percent as compared to aluminum alloy.
Keywords: Mechanical properties, composite material, polyester, Taguchi technique
Antibacterial Activity of Electrospun Silver Nitrate /Nylon 6 Polymeric Nanofiber Water Filtration Mats
Akram Raheem Jabur Laith Kais Abbas Saja Aqeel Moosa
Bacterial water pollution is a genuine general wellbeing concern since it causes various maladies. Antimicrobial nanofibers can be integrated by incorporating nanobiocides, for example, silver nanoparticles into nanofibers. Nylon 6 was dissolved in formic acid at a concentration of (25 wt. %) and tough antibacterial (AgNO3/Nylon) nanofibers were produced utilizing electrospinning system. Polymer solution was tested before accomplishing electrospinning process to acquire its surface tension, electric conductivity and viscosity, where every one of those parameters increased relatively with increasing concentration of (AgNO3) additions. SEM and EDX spectra were utilized to focus on the morphology, surface elemental membrane, fibers and porosize diameters. The resulted nanofiber membrane has an average fiber diameter of 139 nm for pure nylon 6 and 247 nm for (1.2 wt. % AgNO3/Nylon). The resultant polymer membrane was then tested for their ability to destroy microorganisms in water; antimicrobial tests showed that the prepared nanofibers have a high bactericidal effect against Escherichia Coli Bacteria with inhibition zone (10 mm) and antibacterial activity (99%). Likewise, these results highlight the potential utilization of these nanofibrous mats as antimicrobial agents.
Keywords: Antibactrial, Electrospinning, Nanofiber, Water purification filters.
Comparative Study for Organic and Inorganic Draw Solutions in Forward Osmosis
Ahmed Faiq Al-Alalawy Talib Rashid Abbas Hadeer Kadhim Mohammed
The present work aims to study forward osmosis process using different kinds of draw solutions and membranes. Three types of draw solutions (sodium chloride, sodium formate, and sodium acetate) were used in forward osmosis process to evaluate their effectiveness with respect to water flux and reverse salt flux. Experiments conducted in a laboratory-scale forward osmosis (FO) unit in cross flow flat sheet membrane cell. Three types of membranes (Thin film composite (TFC), Cellulose acetate (CA), and Cellulose triacetate (CTA)) were used to determine the water flux under osmotic pressure as a driving force. The effect of temperature, draw solution concentration, feed and draw solution flow rate, and membrane types, were studied with respect to water flux. The results showed an increase in water flux with increasing feed temperature and draw solution concentrations In addition, the flux increased with increasing feed flow rate while the flux was inversely proportional with the draw solution flow rate. The results showed that reverse osmosis membranes (TFC and CA) are not suitable for using in FO process due to the relatively obtained low water flux when compared with the flux obtained by forward osmosis membrane (CTA). NaCl draw solution gave higher water flux than other draw solutions and at the same time, revealed higher reverse salt flux.
Keywords: Forward osmosis, internal concentration polarization, Reverse salt flux, Water flux.
Preparation of Light Fuel Fractions from Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil by Thermal Cracking Reaction
Saleem Mohammed Obyed
This work deals with thermal cracking of heavy vacuum gas oil which produced from the top of vacuum distillation unit at Al- DURA refinery, by continuous process. An experimental laboratory plant scale was constructed in laboratories of chemical engineering department, Al-Nahrain University and Baghdad University. The thermal cracking process was carried out at temperature ranges between 460-560oC and atmospheric pressure with liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) equal to 15hr-1.The liquid product from thermal cracking unit was distilled by atmospheric distillation device according to ASTM D-86 in order to achieve two fractions, below 220oC as a gasoline fraction and above 220oC as light cycle oil (LCO).The first fraction which was below 220oC was fractionated to light fractions (gasoline, kerosene and gas oil) by atmospheric distillation device. The fractions (gasoline, kerosene and gas oil) were distilled by atmospheric distillation device in order to obtained distillation curve for these fractions. Physical properties were recorded for these cuts to compare it with standard property test, in order to studying the possibilities of industrial uses. The maximum conversion of heavy vacuum gas oil was obtained by this process equal to 82 wt. % of feed at 540oC.
Keywords: light fuel, thermal cracking, heavy vacuum ,gas oil.
Study the Catalytic Activity of CeO2 Catalyst for the Oxidative Degradation of Orange G Dye in Aqueous Solution
The oxidative degradation of Orange G dye by nanosized CeO2 catalyst has been performed in this study. The catalyst was prepared by precipitation method. Various characterization techniques were carried out to study the physical and chemical properties of the synthesized catalyst. The XRD result confirms well the formation of CeO2 cubic phase. The FTIR result showed the effect of calcination temperature for CeO2 was clearly observed due to reduction in band intensity compared to uncalcined Ce nitrate sample. Meanwhile, the diffused reflection spectra recorded reflection spectra at 414 nm with an energy gap of 3.2 ev. The decolorization of Orange G dye by oxidation process were carried out under various conditions such as, the effects of H2O2 dosage , pH, catalyst dosage and the temperature of reaction. The optimum conditions for the highest decolorization efficiency (100%) were achieved at 10 mg/L of orange G dye with catalyst dosage of 1.5 g/L, pH 2, reaction temperature of 65 °C and 0.1 mL H2O2.
Keywords: Cerium oxide, Oxidation process, Nanoparticles, Heterogeneous catalyst.
Design and Implementation of a Pharmaceutical Inventory Database Management System
Sama Salam Samaan
The main aim of this paper are the design and implementation of a pharmaceutical inventory database management system. The system was implemented by creating a database containing information about the stored medicines in the inventory, customers making transactions with the pharmaceutical trading company (which owns the inventory), medical suppliers, employees, payments, etc. The database was connected to the main application using C sharp. The proposed system should help in manag inginventory operations which include adding/updating employees’ information, preparing sale and purchase invoices, generating reports, adding/updating customers and suppliers, tracking customer payments and checking expired medicines in order to be disposed. The system can be used to facilitate smooth workflow of sale and purchase operations and bring the advantages of having the most efficient control with minimal efforts.
Keywords: Inventory Database Management System, Invoicemedicine, , Pharmaceutical.
Big-data Management using Map Reduce on Cloud: Case study, EEG Images' Data
Sahar Mahdie Klim
Database is characterized as an arrangement of data that is sorted out and disseminated in a way that allows the client to get to the data being put away in a simple and more helpful way. However, in the era of big-data the traditional methods of data analytics may not be able to manage and process the large amount of data. In order to develop an efficient way of handling big-data, this work studies the use of Map-Reduce technique to handle big-data distributed on the cloud. This approach was evaluated using Hadoop server and applied on EEG Big-data as a case study. The proposed approach showed clear enhancement for managing and processing the EEG Big-data with average of 50% reduction on response time. The obtained results provide EEG researchers and specialist with an easy and fast method of handling the EEG big data.
Keywords: Big-data, Cloud Computing, Electroencephalogram, MapReduce, Hadoop,.
Design an Integral Sliding Mode Controller for a Nonlinear System
Ahmed Khalaf Hamoudi Noora off Abdul Rahman
The goal of this paper is to design a robust controller for controlling a pendulum system. The control of nonlinear systems is a common problem that is facing the researchers in control systems design. The Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) is the best solution for controlling a nonlinear system. The classical SMC consists from two phases. The first phase is the reaching phase and the second is the sliding phase. The SMC suffers from the chattering phenomenon which is considered as a severe problem and undesirable property. It is a zigzag motion along the switching surface. In this paper, the chattering is reduced by using a saturation function instead of sign function. In spite of SMC is a good method for controlling a nonlinear system but it still suffers from long settling time which is considered as undesired property. The Integral Sliding Mode controller (ISMC) can be used to reduce the settling time. Also, the ISMC is a good method for controlling a nonlinear systems. ISMC is simple, has a high performance and can be considered as an effective and powerful technique. In ISMC method, the reaching phaseis eliminated which considered a main part in designing classical SMC. The important property of the ISMC as well as the Classical Sliding Mode Controller (CSMC),is the ability to make the systems asymptotically stable. The pendulum system was used for testing the CSMC and ISMC. The results obtained from the simulation showed the advantages of using the ISMC when comparied with the CSMC. Finally, MATLAB software package was adopted in this paper.
Keywords: Chattering phenomenon, Classical sliding mode controller, Integral sliding mode controller, Switching surface.
Emergency Fuel Rationing system using RFID Smart Cards
Noor Ahmed Khudhur
Rationing is a commonly used solution for shortages of resources and goods that are vital for the citizens of a country. This paper identifies some common approaches and policies used in rationing as well asrisks that associated to suggesta system for rationing fuelwhichcan work efficiently. Subsequently, addressing all possible security risks and their solutions. The system should theoretically be applicable in emergency situations, requiring less than three months to implement at a low cost and minimal changes to infrastructure.
Keywords: Rationing, Smart-card, authentication, RFID, Security, Risk management.